https://www.yourbrainonporn.com/relevant-research-and-articles-about-the-studies/brain-studies-on-porn-users-sex-addicts/#brain

Izifundo ze-Neurological on Porn Use

Oososayensi basebenzise izifundo ze-neurological ukujonga iimpembelelo zoonografi usebenzisa izixhobo ezibandakanya i-fMRI, iMRI kunye ne-EEG. Benze i-neuro-endocrine kunye nezifundo ze-neuro-pyschological. Eli phepha lithathelwe apha Yourbrainonporn.com. Nceda undwendwele Yourbrainonporn.com ukuba ufuna ulwazi olunzulu malunga nophando lwamva nje kwiziphumo zokusetyenziswa kwamanyala.

Izifundo ze-neurological ezingezantsi zahlulwe ngeendlela ezimbini. Okokuqala ngengqondo enxulumene nesiyobisi itshintsha ingxelo nganye. Apha ngezantsi ukuba izifundo ezifanayo zidweliswe ngomhla wokupapashwa, kunye neenkcazo kunye nengcaciso.

Uluhlu ngokutshintsha kwengqondo okunxulumene neziyobisi: Iinguqu ezine zengqondo eziguqulwa ngumlutha zichazwa ngu UGeorge F. Koob kwaye Nora D. Volkow ekuhlaziyweni kwazo. U-Koob unguMlawuli weSizwe soNxila kuTywala nokuTywala (i-NIAAA), kunye neVolko ngumlawuli weSizwe seSizwe sokuLawulwa kweziyobisi (NIDA). Yapapashwa kwiNew England Journal of Medicine: I-Neurobiologic Intuthuko evela kwi-Brain Disease Model of Addiction (2016). Eli phepha lichaza inguqu enkulu yengqondo echaphazelekayo kunye nezidakamizwa zokuziphatha nezidakamizwa, ngelixa lichazwe kwisiqendu sokuqala sokuthi umlutha wesondo ukhona:

"Sigqiba ekubeni i-neuroscience iyaqhubeka ixhasa uhlobo lwesifo sengqondo somlutha. Uphando lwe-neuroscience kule ndawo aliniki nje ngamathuba amatsha okuthintela kunye nokunyangwa kwezilwanyana eziphathekayo kunye nezidakamizwa zokuziphatha (umzekelo, ukutya, isini, kunye nokugembula) .... "

Iphepha leVolkow kunye neKoob licacise utshintsho olusisiseko esibangelwa ziziyobisi, ezi: 1) Sensitization, 2) Ukuxhatshazwa, 3) Izijikelezo ezingasebenzi (unobungqina), i-4) Inkqubo yokuxinzelela ingxaki. Zonke i-4 zale nguqu yenguqu ziye zafunyanwa phakathi kwezifundo ezininzi zeengqondo ezidweliswe kweli phepha:

  • Ukuhlolwa kwengxelo ku khuthazwa (cue-reactivity kunye neminqweno) kubasebenzisi bezesono / izilonda zesini: 1, 2, 3, 45, 6, 7, 89101112131415161718192021.
  • Ukuhlolwa kwengxelo ukungafuneki okanye ukuhlala (kubangele ukunyamezela) kubasebenzisi bezono zobunono / izilonda zesini: 1, 23456.
  • Uphando lwengxelo yokusebenza kolawulo oluhlwempuzekileyo (ukungazenzisi) okanye utshintshile umsebenzi wokubambisana nabaselula bezondo / izilwanyana zesini: 1, 23, 4, 567891011121314.
  • Izifundo ezibonisa inkqubo yoxinzelelo engasebenzi kubasebenzisi bamaselula / izilonda zesini: 123.

Uluhlu lomhla wopapasho: Uluhlu olulandelayo luqulethe zonke iiprogram zengqondo ezipapashwe kubasebenzisi bezononono kunye nabaxhatshazwa ngokwesondo. Isifundo ngasinye esibhalwe apha ngezantsi sihamba kunye nenkcazo okanye inkcazo, kwaye ibonisa ukuba yiyiphi inguqu yeengxaki ze-4 inguqu yezokwelapha ezixubusha iziphumo zayo zivumela:

1) Uphando oluPhambili lwe-Impulsive Neuroanatomical Characteristics of Condulsive Sexual behavior (Miner et al., 2009) - [ukungasebenzi kakuhle kwemijikelezo / umsebenzi olawulayo ohlwempuzekileyo] - Isifundo se-fMRI esibandakanya ikakhulu iziyobisi zesondo. Uphononongo lweengxelo zokuziphatha okungxamisekileyo kwimisebenzi ye-Go-NoGo kwizilonda zesini (ama-hypersexourse) xa kuthelekiswa nabathathi-nxaxheba. Iskena sobuchopho siveze ukuba iziyobisi ezikwabelana ngesondo zazingalungelelanisanga imeko emhlophe yecortex emhlophe xa kuthelekiswa nolawulo. Izicatshulwa:

Ukongezelela kumanyathelo angaphezulu okunika ingxelo, izigulane ze-CSB zibonise umtsalane omkhulu kumsebenzi wokuziphatha, i-Go-No Hamba inkqubo.

Iziphumo zibonisa ukuba izigulane ze-CSB zibonise ummandla ophezulu kakhulu kummandla ongasentla ukuthetha ukungafani (MD) kunokulawula. Uhlalutyo oluhambelanayo lubonise imibutho ebalulekileyo phakathi kwamanyathelo okungahambisani nobuqhetseba kunye nommandla ongaphantsi wengingqi ye-anisotrophy (FA) kunye ne-MD, kodwa akukho mibutho eneemilinganiselo eziphezulu zommandla. Uhlalutyo olufanayo lubonakalisa ubudlelwane obungalunganga obuphakathi kwe-MD ephezulu ye-lobe kunye ne-compulsive inventory behavior inventory.

2) Ulwahlulo oluzimeleyo ngokwemiqathango yesigqeba sokulawula kunye nokuziphatha koxhatshazo kwimeko yesigulane kunye noluntu lwesampula (Reid et al., 2010) - [Umsebenzi olawulayo ohlwempuzekileyo] - Isicatshulwa:

Izigulana ezifuna uncedo kwi-hypersexual behaviour zihlala zibonisa ukungxamiseka, ukuqina kwengqondo, ukugweba okungahambi kakuhle, ukusilela kulawulo lweemvakalelo, kunye nokuzikhathaza kakhulu ngesondo. Ezinye zeempawu ziqhelekile phakathi kwezigulana ezibonisa isifo sengqondo esinxulunyaniswa nokungasebenzi kakuhle. Oku kuqatshelweyo kukhokelele kuphando lwangoku lokwahluka phakathi kweqela lezigulana ezixhatshazelweyo (n = 87) kunye nesampulu yoluntu engeyiyo eye-hypersexual (n = 92) yamadoda asebenzisa uLudwe lweeNdlela zokuZiphatha zoLuhlu lweSigqeba soSebenzi-inguqulelo yabantu abadala I-Hypersexual behaviour yayihambelana kakuhle kunye nezalathiso zehlabathi zokungasebenzi kakuhle kunye neenkxaso ezininzi ze-BRIEF-A. Ezi ziphumo zibonelela ubungqina bokuqala bokuxhasa i-hypothesis yokuba ukungasebenzi kakuhle kunokuba nefuthe ekuziphatheni okuxhatshaxayo.

3) Ukubukela Imifanekiso Engamanyala kwi-Intanethi: Inxaxheba Yokulinganisa Ngokwezesondo kunye Neengqondo-Iimpawu Zengqondo Zokusebenzisa I-Intanethi Zamasondo Ngokugqithiseleyo (UBrand et al., 2011) - [Iminqweno engaphezulu / uvakalelo kunye nomsebenzi olawulayo ohlwempuzekileyo] - Isicatshulwa:

Iziphumo zibonisa ukuba iingxaki zobomi bemihla ngemihla ezixhomekeke kwimisebenzi yoxhatshazo lwe-intanethi zichazwe ngokulinganiswa kobulili obuphathekayo obuphathekayo bezinto eziphathekayo zobulili, ubunzima bomhlaba beempawu zengqondo, kunye nenani lezicelo zesondo xa zisetyenziselwa iisayithi zocansi nge-intanethi kwimpilo yemihla ngemihla, ngeli xesha ixesha elisetyenziselwa kwiisayithi zezesini ze-intanethi (imizuzu ngemini) azizange zenze igalelo elikhulu ekuchazeni ukuhlukahluka kwamanqaku e-IATsex. Sibona ukufana okuphakathi kweendlela zokuqonda kunye neengqondo ezingabangela ukuba kube nokugcinwa kwe-cybersex ngokweqile kunye nalabo bachazwe ngabantu abanexhomekeke kwimpahla.

4) Umfanekiso ococekileyo Uqwalasela i-Interferes esebenzayo yokuKhumbula iMisebenzi (Laier et al., 2013) - [Iminqweno engaphezulu / uvakalelo kunye nomsebenzi olawulayo ohlwempuzekileyo] - Isicatshulwa:

Abanye abantu baxela iingxaki ngexesha kunye nangemva kokubandakanyeka ngesondo ngo-intanethi, njengokulala okungekho kunye nokulibala ukuqeshwa, ezidibene nemiphumo emibi yokuphila. Enye indlela enokubangela ezi ntlobo zeengxaki kukuba ukuxhatshazwa ngokwesondo ngexesha le-intanethi lingaphazamisa umthamo wokusebenza (WM), okubangelwa ukunganyanzelwanga kolwazi olufanelekileyo lwendalo kwaye ngoko ke ukungahambi kakuhle kwezigqibo. Iziphumo zityhila kakubi ukusebenza kwe-WM kwisimo somfanekiso wesithothosiso somsebenzi we-4-back xa kuthelekiswa neemeko ezintathu eziseleyo. Iziphumo zixubusha ngokubhekiselele kwi-intanethi ye-intanethi kuba ukuphazamiseka kwe-WM ngeziqulatho ezinxulumene neziyobisi ziyaziwa ngokuxhomekeka kwizinto eziphathekayo.

5) Ukucwangciswa koBugcisa beSithotyana ngokuSebenza ngeZigqibo phantsi kobuchule (Laier et al., 2013) - [Iminqweno engaphezulu / uvakalelo kunye nomsebenzi olawulayo ohlwempuzekileyo] - Isicatshulwa:

Umsebenzi wokwenza izigqibo wawunzima kakhulu xa imifanekiso yesondo idibaniswa neengcingo ezingekho phantsi kwamanani xa kuthelekiswa nokusebenza xa imifanekiso yesondo idibaniswe nakwiindawo ezifanelekileyo. Ukuvuswa kwezesondo ngokuvisisanayo ngokumalunga nezesondo kulungelelanisa ubudlelwane phakathi komgangatho wenkqubo kunye nokwenza izigqibo. Olu pho nonongo luye wagxininisa ukuba ukuvuswa kwezesondo kugxininisa ukuthatha isigqibo, oku kungachaza ukuba kutheni abanye abantu befumana imiphumo emibi kwiimeko zokusebenzisa i-intanethi.

6) Umlutha we-Cybersex: Ukuvuswa kwezesondo malunga nolwazi xa ukhangele iifoto ezingcolileyo kunye noonobumba bezocwangco bobulili benza ukubahluko (Laier et al., 2013) - [Iminqweno engaphezulu / uvakalelo kunye nomsebenzi olawulayo ohlwempuzekileyo] - Isicatshulwa:

Iziphumo zibonisa ukuba izalathisi zesondo zovuko kunye nokukhanga kwiinkcukacha zoononophala ze-intanethi ezichazwe ukutyekela kwi-cyber sex addiction ekuqaleni. Ngaphezu koko, kuboniswe ukuba abasebenzisi be-cyber bexakeka ingxaki bavakalisa ukuvuthwa kwezesondo kunye nokwenzakala kweempembelelo ezibangelwa ukuboniswa koononopopayi. Kwizifundo zombini, inani kunye nomgangatho kunye noonobumba bezonxibelelwano bokwenene zesini abazange bahlobaniswe nokulutha kwe-cybersex. Iziphumo zixhasa ukuxhaswa kwengqondo, ebonisa ukuqiniswa, iindlela zokufunda, nokufuna ukuba iinkqubo ezifanelekileyo ekuphuhliseni nasekugcinweni kokulutha kwe-cybersex. Ubuthathaka okanye ukunganelisekanga oonxibelelwano bobuhlobo bokwabelana ngesondo abanakho ukuchaza ngokufanelekileyo ukunyaniseka kwe-cybersex.

7) Isifiso socansi, kungekhona ukuxhatshazwa kwezesini, kuxhomekeke kwiimpendulo ze-neurophysiological ezifunyenwe yiZithombe zoSondo (Steele et al., 2013) - [i-cac-reactivity ehambelana nomnqweno ongaphantsi wesini: ukukhuthaza nokuhlala] - Olu pho nonongo lwe-EEG kumaphephandaba njengobungqina obuchasene nobukho bobulili / ubundlobongela ngesondo. Ayikho njaloSteele et al. I-2013 inika inkxaso ekukholeni kokugqithiswa koonobumba kunye nokusetyenziswa koononophelo phantsi kokulawulwa komnqweno wesini. Kanjani? Olu phofu luchaza ukufunda okuphezulu kwe-EEG (ezinxulumene nemifanekiso engathathi hlangothi) xa izifundo zichazwe ngokufutshane kwiifoto zoonografi. Izifundo zibonisa rhoqo ukuba i-P300 ephakamileyo iyenzeka xa izilingo zichazwe kwiinkcazo (ezifana nemifanekiso) ezihlobene nokulutha kwawo.

Ngokuhambelanayo ne Ucwaningo lweYunivesithi yaseCambridge luhlola uphando, Olu pho nonongo lwe-EEG luchaze kwakhona ukukhwabanisa okukhulu kwe-porn kunye nomnqweno omncinci wesini esahlukileyo. Ukubeka ngenye indlela - abantu abane-activation ebukhali yoononophala banokukhetha ukuhambisa iphonografi kwi-porn kunokuba babelane ngesondo nomntu wokwenyani. Ngokuothusayo, isithethi sokufunda UNicole Prause Batsho ukuba abasebenzisi bezononono bebanokuthi "babe ne-libido ephezulu," kodwa iziphumo zolu cwaningo zithi ngokuchasene ngqo (isifundo somxholo wesini esahlukileyo sasiyehla ngokubhekiselele ekusebenziseni kwabo ubulili).

Ngokudibeneyo aba babini uSteele et al. Iziphumo zibonisa ubungakanani bengqondo enkulu kwimifanekiso (imifanekiso engamanyala), kodwa kuncinci ekusebenzeni kwakhona kwimivuzo yendalo (isondo nomntu). Zombini ziimpawu ezibonakalayo zokulutha. Amaphepha amathandathu aqwalaselwe ngoontanga acacisa inyani: 123456. Khangela oku iYBOP ebanzi.

Ngaphandle kwamanqaku amaninzi angasetyenziswa kumaphephandaba, kuphazamisa ukuba uphando lwe-2013 lwe-EGG lweProuse lwaludlulisela ukuhlaziywa kontanga, njengoko lathinteka kwiindlela eziphambili zendlela: i-1) izifundo i-heterogeneous (abesilisa, amabhinqa, abangenabo abathathu); Izifundo ze-2) ingakhange ihlolwe ingxaki yengqondo okanye izilingo; 3) akukho liqela lolawulo lokuthelekisa; Imibuzo yee-4) ayivumelekanga ukusetyenziswa kwezilwanyana okanye utywala.

8) Ukwakhiwa kweBrains kunye nokuQhagamshelana okuSebenzayo Ukudibanisa neZonografi Ukusetyenziswa: Ubuninzi kwi-Porn (Kuhn kunye neGallinat, 2014) - [ukuchithwa kwezinto, ukuhlala, kunye nezijikelezo zesistim]. Ucwaningo lwama-Max Planck Institute lwama-fMRI luchaze iziphumo ze-3 ezifunyenwe ngeengxaki zeengxaki zezilwanyana (1). phakathi kwe-storum ye-dorsal ne-corors. Abaphandi bathetha ukufumana iziphumo ze-2 njengombonakalo wefuthe lokunyanzeliswa kocwangco lwexesha elide. Uthe isifundo,

Oku kuyahambelana neengcamango yokuba ukunyanzeliswa okukhulu kwezinto eziphathekayo zoononophelo kubangelwa ukulawulwa phantsi kwe-natural nature response to the stimuli.

Ekuchazeni ukuxhamla komsebenzi ohluphekayo phakathi kwe-PFC kunye ne-striatum, isifundo sathi,

Ukungasebenzi kwesi siphaluka kuye kwahlobene nokukhetha okungafanelekanga, njengokufuna iziyobisi, kungakhathaliseki ukuba yintoni isiphumo esibi

Umbhali oyintloko USimone Kühn ubeka ingxelo kwi-press release ye-Max Planck:

Sicinga ukuba izifundo ngokusetyenziswa kwamanyala aphezulu zifuna ukunyuka okunyukayo ukuze kufumaneke umvuzo ofanayo. Oku kunokuthetha ukuba ukusetyenziswa rhoqo kweentlobano zesono ezingaphantsi kunxiba inkqubo yakho yomvuzo. Oku kuya kufaneka ngokupheleleyo ngengcamango yokuba iinkqubo zabo zokuvuza zifuna ukukhula okukhuthazayo.

9) Neural Correlates of Reactivity Cue Reactivity kuBantu ngabanye kunye nabangenako ukunyanzelisa ngokwesondo (Voon et al., 2014) [Ukuqonda / ukucinga-ukucwangcisa kunye nokunciphisa intsingiselo] Iyokuqala kwichungechunge lwezifundo zeYunivesithi yaseCambridge yafumana inyekelo yohlobo lwezobuchopho kwizilingo ze-porn (izifundo ze-CSB) njengoko zibonwa kwizilwanyana ezidakisayo kunye notywala-ukukhangela okukhulu okanye ukukhuthaza. Umphandi oyintloko Valerie Voon wathi:

Kukho umahluko ocacileyo kwingqondo yobuchopho phakathi kwezigulane ezinokuziphatha ngokunyanzela ngokwesondo kunye namavolontiya anempilo. Ezi zintlukwano zibukraza ezo zidakamizwa.

I-voon et al., I-2014 yafumanisa ukuba izilonda zoononophala ziyafaneleka imodeli yomlutha oyamkelekileyo yokufuna "ngakumbi", kodwa ungathandi "yona" nangakumbi. Isicatshulwa:

Ngokuthelekiswa namavolontiya aphilileyo, izifundo ze-CSB zinesifiso esilawulayo ngokwesini okanye sifuna ukuthetha ngokucacileyo kwaye zinamanani amaninzi afana neengcamango ezinobunzima, ngaloo ndlela kubonisa ukuhlukana phakathi kokufuna nokuthanda

Abaphandi baphinde bathi i-60% yezifundo (ubudala beminyaka: i-25) kunzima ukufikelela kwimigqaliselo / ukuvuswa kunye namaqabane angokoqobo, kodwa iyakwazi ukufikelela kwizilungiso kunye noonwabo. Oku kubonisa ukukhuthaza okanye ukuhlala. Amacatshulwa:

Izifundo ze-CSB zichaze ukuba ngenxa yokusetyenziswa gwenxa kwezixhobo ezichaza ngokwesini… .. amava okuphulukana namava e-libido okanye umsebenzi we-erectile ngokuthe ngqo kubudlelwane bomzimba nabasetyhini (nangona bungekho kubudlelwane nezinto ezichazayo ngokwesini)…

Izifundo ze-CSB eziqhathaniswa namavolontiya aphilileyo zinobunzima obunzima kunye nokuvuswa kwesondo kunye nolwazi oluninzi lwe-erectile kwizondo zobudlelwane obusondelene naye kodwa kungabonakali izinto eziphathekayo ngokwesini.

10) Ukuphuculwa kweeNkcazo ezibhekiselele kwizesondo ezicacileyo kuBantu ngabanye kunye nangaphandle kokuthintela ngokwesondo (Mechelmans et al., 2014) - [uvakalelo / ukwenziwa kwakhona] - Isifundo seYunivesithi yesibini eCambridge. Isicatshulwa:

Iziphumo zethu zokonyusa umdla wokuthathela ingqalelo… ziphakamisa ukugqagqana okunokwenzeka kunye nokunyanzeliswa kwengqwalaselo okuqwalaselweyo kuphononongo lwezixhobo zeziyobisi kukuphazamiseka kweziyobisi. Ezi zinto zifunyanisiweyo ziyahlangana kunye neziphumo zakutsha nje ze-neural reactivity to cues cues in [iziyobisi ezingamanyala] kuthungelwano olufana nolo lubandakanyekayo kwizifundo zokufumana iziyobisi kunye nokubonelela ngenkxaso yenkuthazo yethiyori yenkuthazo engaphantsi kwempendulo engathandekiyo kwezesondo kwi [ Iziyobisi ezingamanyala]. Oku kufumanisa kudibana kunye nokujonga kwethu kutshanje ukuba iividiyo ezibonisa ezesondo zinxulunyaniswa nomsebenzi omkhulu kwinethiwekhi ye-neural efanayo naleyo ibonwa kwizifundo zokufumana iziyobisi kwakhona. Umnqweno omkhulu okanye ukuthanda kunokuthanda kwaqhubeka kunxulunyaniswa nomsebenzi kule nethiwekhi ye-neural. Ezi zifundo zidibene zibonelela ngenkxaso yenkuthazo yethiyori yokukhuthaza ukuba likhoboka leziyobisi kwi-CSB.

11) Ukuxhatshazwa kwe-Cybersex kwi-intanethi yabasebenzisi besini kwi-intanethi ye-intanethi kunokuchazwa ngokuxhaswa kwe-hypothesis (Laier et al., 2014) - [Iminqweno / uvakalelo olukhulu] - Isicatshulwa:

Sihlolisise i-51 yabasetyhini be-IPU kunye ne-51 nabasetyhini abangabonayo i-Internet (NIPU). Ukusebenzisa imibuzo, sahlola ubunzima bokulutha kwe-inthanethi ngokubanzi, kwakunye nokuxhalaba ngokwesondo, ukuziphatha okubi ngokwesini kunye nokuqina kwempawu zengqondo. Ukongezelela, iparadigm yokulinga, kubandakanywa ukulinganiswa kokuvuswa komfanekiso we-100, kunye nezibonakaliso zokufuna, kwaqhutywa. Iziphumo zibonise ukuba i-IPU ilinganise imifanekiso yezongcola njengokuba ivuselela ngakumbi kwaye ivakalise ukukhanga okukhulu ngenxa yokubonisa umfanekiso wesithothosiso xa kuthelekiswa neNIPU. Ngaphezu koko, ukulangazelela, ukulingana ngokwesondo, imifanekiso, ukuvavanya kwintlondi yesondo, ukuziphatha okubi ngokwesini kunye nokunyaniseka kweempawu zeengqondo ziqikelele ukutyekela kwi-IPU. Ukuba nobudlelwane, inani lezonxibelelwano zesondo, ukwaneliseka koqhagamshelwano ngokwesondo, kunye nokusetyenziswa kwe-intanethi ye-intanethi ayisebenzisanga nokuxhatshazwa kwe-cybersex. Ezi ziphumo zihambelana nezo zichazwe ngabantu abesilisa kunye nabesilisa ekufundeni kwangaphambili. Iziphumo ngokumalunga nokunyusa ukunyuswa kwezesondo, iindlela zokufunda, kunye nendima yokuqhelana nokusebenza kunye nokulangazelela ekuphuculweni kwezilwanyana ze-inthanethi kwi-IPU kufuneka zixoxwe ngazo.

12) Ubungqina bobuGcisa kunye nokuqwalaselwa kweengcinga kwizinto ezibangela ukuxhatshazwa kwe-Cybersex kwi-View Cognitive Viewing behavior (Laier et al., 2014) - [Iminqweno / uvakalelo olukhulu] - Isicatshulwa:

Ubume bento edlalwa ngokuba ngumlutha we-cybersex (CA) kunye neendlela zayo zokuphuhliswa zixutyushwa. Umsebenzi odlulileyo ubonisa ukuba abanye abantu bangasengozini kwi-CA, ngelixa ukuqinisekiswa okuqinisekileyo nokukhawuleza-ukucwangciswa kwemisebenzi kuthathwa njengendlela ephambili yokuphuhliswa kwe-CA. Kulo pho nonongo, i-155 yamadoda angqinileyo axabisa iifayile ze-100 zoonografi kwaye yabonisa ukunyuka kwabo kwesondo. Ukongezelela koko, ukutyekela kwi-CA, ukukhathazeka kwintlonipho yesondo kunye nokusetyenziswa kakubi kwesondo ngokubanzi kwahlolwe. Iziphumo zovavanyo zibonisa ukuba kukho iziganeko zobungozi kwi-CA kwaye zinikezela ubungqina bendima yokuxhaswa ngokwesondo kunye nokuxhatshazwa kakubi ekuphuhliseni i-CA.

13) Ukuvelisa, ukuBamba kunye nokuKhathalela imivuzo yokuSondo (Banca et al., 2015) - [Iminqweno engaphezulu / uvakalelo kunye nokuhlala / ukungafuneki] - Olunye uphononongo lwe-fMRI yeYunivesithi yaseCambridge. Xa kuthelekiswa nolawulo lweziyobisi ezingamanyala. Nangona kunjalo, ubuchopho bezilonda ezingamanyala buhlala ngokukhawuleza kwimifanekiso yesondo. Kuba ukuthanda izinto ezintsha kwakungekho ngaphambili, kukholelwa ukuba ukubakho kweziyobisi ezingamanyala kuqhuba ukufuna izinto ezintsha ngenzame yokoyisa ukuhlala kunye nokungafuneki.

Ukuziphatha ngokwesondo okunyanzelekileyo (i-CSB) kwakudityaniswa nokukhethwa kwezinto ezithandwayo ngokwesini, xa kuthelekiswa nemifanekiso yokulawula, kunye nokukhethwa ngokubanzi kweziqulatho ezibekwe kwisondo kunye nemali xa kuthelekiswa neziphumo ezingathathi hlangothi xa kuthelekiswa namavolontiya asempilweni. Abantu be-CSB babenomsebenzi omkhulu wokuhlala bethambekele ekuphindaphindeni ngokwesini xa kuthelekiswa nemifanekiso yemali kunye nenqanaba lokuziqhelanisa nokunxibelelana nokukhetha okuphuculweyo kwinto entsha yesondo. Indlela yokuziphatha kwindlela yokuziphatha ngokwesondo ekwahlukanisekayo ekukhetheni izinto ezinqabileyo ezinxulunyaniswa nomnqweno wokuqala kwimifanekiso yesondo. Olu phononongo lubonisa ukuba abantu abathile be-CSB banokukhetha okungafunekiyo okuphuculweyo kokuziphatha ngokwesini okunokwenzeka kube phakathi kokuziqhelanisa nokuziqhelanisa nokuziqhelanisa ngokubanzi nemeko yokufumana umvuzo.

Inkcazo ukususela kwiinkcukacha ezihambelana nendaba:

Bafumanise ukuba xa abo babelikhoboka lesini bejonga lo mfanekiso wesondo uphindaphindwayo, xa kuthelekiswa namavolontiya asempilweni athe afumana ukwehla okukhulu kwemisebenzi kwingingqi yengqondo eyaziwa njenge-dorsal anterior cingate cortex, eyaziwa ngokuba nenxaxheba kulindelo lwemivuzo kunye nokuphendula imicimbi emitsha. Oku kuyahambelana 'nokuhlala', apho umlutha afumana isikhuthazi esifanayo esingaphantsi nesincinci esinomvuzo- umzekelo, umntu osela ikofu unokufumana i-caffeine 'buzz' kwikomityi yabo yokuqala, kodwa ekuhambeni kwexesha xa besela ikofu, incinci buzz iba.

Esi siphumo esifanayo senzeke kwindoda enempilo eboniswa ngokuphindaphindiweyo ividiyo yeefayili efanayo. Kodwa xa bejonga ividiyo entsha, inqanaba lomdla kunye nokuvusa libuyela kwizinga langaphambili. Oku kuthetha ukuba, ukuthintela ukuziphatha, umlutha wesondo uya kufuna ukufumana rhoqo imifanekiso emitsha. Ngamanye amagama, ukuhlala kunokuqhuba ukukhangela imifanekiso yamanoveli.

"Iziphumo zethu zibaluleke ngokukodwa kumxholo weentengiso zoonografi," wongezela uDkt Voon. "Akucaci oko kukubangela ukuxhatshazwa ngokocansi kwindawo yokuqala kwaye mhlawumbi abanye abantu banokudlulela phambili ukugqithisa kunokuba abanye, kodwa ukubonelela okungapheliyo kweemifanekiso zentlobano zesini ezitholakalayo kwi-intanethi kunceda ukunyusa umlutha wabo, okwenza kube ngakumbi kwaye kunzima ukubaleka. "

14) Izithintelo ze-Neural zesifiso soSondo kubantu ngabanye abaneendlela zokuziphatha ezixhatshaxayo (Ukufuna kunye neSohn, 2015) - [cue cacacac reactivity / sensitization and disysal prefrontal circuits] - Olu phononongo lwaseKorea fMRI luphindaphinda ezinye izifundo zobuchopho kubasebenzisi be-porn. Njengophononongo lweCambridge University lafumanisa ukuba i-cue-induction activation activation i-cucate in drug addict, ebonisa imizekelo yeziyobisi. Ngokuhambelana nezifundo ezininzi zaseJamani lafumana utshintsho kwi-cortex yangaphambili ehambelana notshintsho olubonwe kwikhoboka leziyobisi. Yintoni entsha kukuba iziphumo zihambelane neepatheni zangaphambili zecortex zokuvula eziqwalaselwe kwikhoboka leziyobisi: Eyona nto iphambili ekwenziweni kwakhona kwimifanekiso yesondo kodwa kuthintelwe iimpendulo kolunye uxhaso oluqhelekileyo. Isicatshulwa:

Isifundo sethu sijolise ekuphandeni ulungelelwaniso lwe-neural lomnqweno wesini kunye nokucinga okuhambelana nomnyhadala wokucinga ngemagneti (fMRI). Abantu abangamashumi amabini anesithathu abane-PHB kunye ne-22 yolawulo oluhambelana nobudala olulinganisiweyo baskenwe ngelixa bejonga ngokungathandabuzekiyo isini kunye nokuziphatha okungathandekiyo. Amanqanaba ezifundo zomnqweno wesini zavavanywa ngokuphendula kwisistim ngasinye sesini. Inxulumene nolawulo, abantu abane-PHB banamava rhoqo kunye nokuphucula umnqweno wesini ngexesha lokuchaphazeleka kwisini. Ukusebenza okuthe kratya kwajongwa kwi-caudate nucleus, ipharietal lobe engaphantsi, i-dorsal anterior cingate gyrus, thalamus, kunye ne-dorsolateral preortal cortex kwiqela le-PHB kunakwicandelo lolawulo. Ukongeza, iipateni zehemodynamic kwiindawo ezenziweyo zahlukile phakathi kwamaqela. Ngokuhambelana neziphumo zophando lobuchwephesha bobuchwephesha bokuziphatha kunye nokuziphatha gwenxa, abantu abaneempawu zokuziphatha ze-PHB kunye nomnqweno ophuculweyo ababonakalise ukusebenza okuguqulweyo kwindawo yangaphambili yecortex kunye nemimandla engaphantsi.

15) Ukumodareyithwa kwezinto ezinokuthi zifikeleleke kwiindawo ezinokubakho eziphathekayo ngeZithombe zoSondo kwi-Problem Users and Controls.Prause et al., 2015) - [habituation] - Isifundo se-EEG sesibini esivela Iqela likaNicole Prause. Olu phofu lucatsanisa izifundo ze-2013 Steele et al., 2013 kwiqela elilawulayo langempela (kodwa lithe lahlulwa ngeendlela ezingafaniyo zendlela echazwe ngasentla). Iziphumo: Ukuqhathaniswa nokulawula "abantu abajongene neengxaki ezilawula ukujonga kwabo ngoonobumba" babe neempendulo ezingaphantsi kweengqondo kwisithuba esinye sesibini kwizithombe ze-porno ye-vanilla. I umbhali okhokelayo ubanga ezi ziphumo "zokuziphatha gwenxa kwe-porn." Yeyiphi isazinzulu esisemthethweni esinokuthi ibango labo lokufunda ngokungathandekiyo libonakalise kwintsimi efunyenweyo yokufunda?

Enyanisweni, iziphumo ze Prause et al. I2015 ihambelanise ngokupheleleyo Kühn & Gallinat (2014)ofumanisa ukuba ukusetyenziswa koonobumba obuninzi kunxulumene nokusebenza kwengqondo engaphantsi ekuphenduleni imifanekiso ye-porno ye-vanilla. Prause et al. iziphumo zihambelana nazo Banca et al. 2015 okuyi-#13 kuloluhlu. Ngaphezu koko, esinye isifundo seEEG ifumanise ukuba ukusetyenziswa gwenxa kwe-porn kwabasetyhini kunxulumene nokusebenza kwengqondo okuncinci kwi-porn. Ukufundwa kwe-EEG esezantsi kuthetha ukuba izifundo azihoyi kangako imifanekiso. Ngokucacileyo, abasebenzisi bezononophelo abaqhelekileyo babengenasidingo kwimifanekiso eqingqiweyo ye-vanilla porn. Babekruqukile (behlala okanye bengenasiphelo). Bona oku iYBOP ebanzi. Amaphepha ahlolisisiweyo angama-7 avuma ukuba le ncwadana ifunyenwe ukukhathazeka / ukuhlala kubasebenzisi bezononophelo rhoqo (ngokuhambelana nomlutha): 1234567.

16) I-HPA Axis Dysregulation kwiMadoda ene-Dispersexual Disorder (Chatzittofis, 2015) - [Impendulo yoxinzelelo olungasebenziyo] - Uphononongo olunamadoda angama-67 angamakhoboka esini kunye nolawulo oluhambelana neminyaka engama-39. Ihypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis yeyona ndawo iphambili kwimpendulo yoxinzelelo. Iziyobisi ukuguqula izijikelezo zengqondo ekhokelela kwi-axis yeHPA engasebenzi. Olu pho nonongo lwezilonda (i-hypersexuals) lifumene iimpendulo zengcinezelo ezijonge iziphumo kunye nezilingo zomzimba. Iingcaphuno ezivela kwikhompyutha yokukhululwa:

Uhlolisiso lwabandakanya amadoda e-67 anesifo sokuxhatshazwa koxhatshazo kunye nolawulo lwe-39 olufanelekileyo olufanelekileyo. Abathathi-nxaxheba bafumene i-dispersion disorder kunye naluphi na u-co-morbidity with depress or childhood trauma. Abaphandi babanike umthamo ophantsi we-dexamethasone ngokuhlwa ngaphambi kokuvavanywa ukuba bavimbele ukuphendula kwabo ngokomzimba, kwaye ngoko kusasa balinganise amazinga abo okuxinwa kwe-hormone i-cortisol ne-ACTH. Bafumanise ukuba izigulane ezineengxaki zokuxhatshazwa koxhatshazo lwama-hypersexual ziye zinezinga eliphezulu lee-hormone ezinjalo kunezolawulo oluphilileyo, ulwahluko oluye lwahlala nangemva kokulawula ukuxinezeleka ngokubandezeleka kunye nokukhathazeka kwabantwana.

UNjingalwazi Jokinen uthi: "Ummiselo woxinzelelo lwe-Aberrant wawukhe waqwalaselwa kwizigulana ezidandathekileyo nezizibulalayo nakwabo basebenzisa iziyobisi." "Kwiminyaka yakutshanje, bekugxilwe ekubeni ingaba ukwenzakala ebuntwaneni kungakhokelela kuxinzelelo lweenkqubo zoxinzelelo lomzimba kusetyenziswa iindlela ezibizwa ngokuba zii-epigenetic, ngamanye amagama indlela imeko yeengqondo zabo ezinokuba nefuthe ngayo kwimfuza elawula ezi nkqubo." Ngokutsho kwabaphandi, iziphumo zibonisa ukuba inkqubo efanayo ye-neurobiological echaphazelekayo kolunye uhlobo lokuxhatshazwa inokufaka isicelo kubantu abane-hypersexual disorder.

17) Ulawulo lwe-Prefrontal kunye nokuxilongwa kwe-intanethi: imodeli yezobugcisa kunye nokuphononongwa kweziphumo ze-neuropsychological and neuroimaging (UBrand et al., 2015)- [Ukungasebenzi kakuhle kweesekethe / umsebenzi olawulayo ohlwempuzekileyo kunye novakalelo] - Isicatshulwa:

Ngokuhambelana noku, iziphumo ezivela ekusebenzeni kwe-neuroimaging kunye nolunye uphononongo lwe-neuropsychological zibonisa ukuba ukwenziwa kwakhona kwe-cue-reactivity, ukunqwenela, kunye nokwenza izigqibo zizinto ezibalulekileyo zokuqonda ukuba likhoboka le-Intanethi. Iziphumo zokuncitshiswa kolawulo oluphezulu ziyahambelana nezinye iindlela zokuziphatha, ezinjengokungcakaza okungapheliyo. Bakwakugxininisa ukuhlelwa kwento njengesiyobisi, kuba kukwakho ukufana okuninzi kunye neziphumo zokuxhomekeka kwinto. Ngaphezu koko, iziphumo zophando lwangoku ziyafana nokufunyaniswa kuphando lokuxhomekeka kwezinto kunye nokugxininisa ii-analogies phakathi kweziyobisi ezenziwa nge-cybersex kunye nokuxhomekeka kweziyobisi okanye ezinye iindlela zokuziphatha.

18) Unxulumano olungapheliyo kumlingo we-cybersex: Ukutshintshwa kovavanyo lweMbutho oluqinileyo kunye neefoto zoonografi (Snagkowski et al., 2015) - [Iminqweno / uvakalelo olukhulu] - Isicatshulwa:

Uphononongo olutshanje lubonisa ukufana phakathi kokulutha kwe-cybersex kunye nokuxhomekeka kwezinto kunye nokuphikisa ukwahlula umlutha we-cybersex njengesiqhelo sokuziphatha. Ukuxhomekeka kwento, imibutho engachazwanga iyaziwa ukuba idlala indima ebalulekileyo, kwaye loo mibutho ingakhange ifundwe kumlutha we-cybersex, ukuza kuthi ga ngoku. Kolu phononongo lokuvavanywa, abathathi-nxaxheba abesilisa nabasetyhini abayi-128 bagqibe uvavanyo oluQinisekileyo loMbutho (i-IAT; iGreenwald, iMcGhee, kunye neSchwartz, i-1998) eguqulwe ngemifanekiso engamanyala. Ukuqhubela phambili, ingxaki yokuziphatha ngokwesondo, ubuntununtunu ekuvuseleleni ngokwesini, utyekelo lokufumana iziyobisi kwi-cybersex, kunye nokunqwenela ngokuzimela ngenxa yokubukela imifanekiso engamanyala yavavanywa. Iziphumo zibonisa ubudlelwane obuhle phakathi kwemibutho engamanyala yeefoto zoononografi kunye neemvakalelo ezintle kunye nokuthambekela kokulutha kwe-cybersex, indlela yokuziphatha enengxaki yesini, ubuntununtunu ekuvuseleleni ngokwesondo kunye nokunqwenela ngokuzithoba. Ngaphaya koko, uhlalutyo lokumodareyitha olulinganiselweyo lubonakalise ukuba abantu abachaze ukuthanda kwabo ngokuzithoba kwaye babonisa ubudlelwane obufanelekileyo bemifanekiso engamanyala eneemvakalelo ezintle, ngakumbi ezijolise kumlutha we-cybersex. Iziphumo zibonisa ukuba inokuba yinxalenye yemibutho efanelekileyo kunye nemifanekiso engamanyala kuphuhliso kunye nokugcinwa kweziyobisi kwi-cybersex. Ngaphezu koko, iziphumo zophando lwangoku ziyafana nokufunyaniswa kuphando lokuxhomekeka kwezinto kunye nokugxininisa ukufana phakathi kokulutha kwe-cybersex kunye nokuxhomekeka kweziyobisi okanye ezinye iindlela zokuziphatha.

19) Iimpawu zoxhatshazo lwe-inthanethi lunokudibaniswa kokubili kokusondela kunye nokuphepha ukukhupha imifanekiso engamanyala: iziphumo ezivela kwisampuli ye-analog yebasebenzisi be-intanethi rhoqo.Snagkowski, et al., 2015) - [Iminqweno / uvakalelo olukhulu] - Isicatshulwa:

Ezinye iinkqubo zibhekiselele kwizinto ezinxulumene nokuxhomekeka kwezinto eziphathekayo apho ukuthambekela / ukuphepha ukuthambekela kubalulekile. Abaphandi abaninzi baphikisa ukuba kwimeko yesigqibo esinxulumene nomlingo, abantu bangabonisa ukuthambekela kokusondela okanye ukuphepha isistim esichaphazelekayo. Kwimeko yangoku i-123 indoda engatshatanga ngesondo iyagqiba indlela yokuSebenza-ukuPhepha-umsebenzi (i-AAT; I-Rinck no-Becker, i-2007) iguqulwe ngeefoto zoononografi. Ngexesha le-AAT abathathi-nxaxheba bekufuneka baqhube i-stimuli okanye bahoxise kubo. Ukuqonda ukuxhalaba ngokwesondo, ukuziphatha okubi ngokwesini, kunye nokunyamekela ukuxilwa kwe-inthanethi ku-intanethi zihlolwe ngemibuzo.

Iziphumo zabonisa ukuba abantu abanomdla wokuxhatshazwa ngocansi lwe-intanethi babenokuthi bangene okanye baphephe ukunyanzeliswa koonwabo. Ukongezwa koko, ukuhlaziywa kweemodareyithwa kwimodareyibhile kubonisa ukuba abantu abanexhala eliphezulu lezesondo kunye nokuziphatha kakubi ngokwesondo ababonisa ukunyamekela / ukuphepha ukuthambekela, bachaze iimpawu eziphezulu zokulutha kwe-cybersex. Iziganeko ezixhomekeke kwizixhomekeke kwizinto eziphathekayo, iziphumo zibonisa ukuba zombini iindlela zokutyekela nokukhusela zingabamba indima ekukhuseleni i-cybersex. Ukongezelela, ukusebenzisana novelwano malunga nokuxhaswa ngokwesini kunye nokuziphatha okubi ngokwesini kunokuba nempembelelo yokubaluleka kwezikhalazo ezizimeleyo kwimpilo yemihla ngemihla ngenxa yokusetyenziswa kwe-intanethi. Ezi ziphumo zibonelela ubungqina obuninzi bokufana nokufana nokuxhatshazwa kwe-inthanethi kunye nokuxhomekeka kwezinto eziphathekayo. Ukufana okunjalo kunokubuyiswa kwintsebenziswano efana neorural of cues related to cybersex-and related links.

20) Ukubambelela kwiimifanekiso engamanyala? Ukusetyenziswa ngokugqithisileyo okanye ukungahoywa kwimiba ye-intanethi kwisimo se-multitasking ihambelana neempawu zokulutha kwe-cybersex (Schiebener et al., 2015) - [Iminqweno / uvakalelo olukhulu kunye nolawulo lwentlupheko] - Isicatshulwa:

Abanye abantu basebenzisa i-intanethi ye-intanethi, njengezinto eziphathekayo zobulili, ngendlela engumlutha, ekhokelela kwimiphumo emibi kwimpilo yabucala okanye emsebenzini. Enye indlela ekhokelela kwimiphumo emibi inokunciphisa ukulawula okulawulayo malunga nokuqonda kunye nokuziphatha okunokuba kuyimfuneko ukujonga ukuguquka komgomo phakathi kokusebenzisa i-cybersex kunye neminye imisebenzi kunye nezibophelelo zobomi. Ukujongana nale mpawu, sihlolisise abathathi-nxaxheba be-104 besine-paradigm yokulawula i-multitasking iiseti ezimbini: Isethi enye iqukethe imifanekiso yabantu, enye isethi ibandakanya imifanekiso engamanyala. Kuzo zombini usetha imifanekiso kufuneka ihlelwe ngokwemiqathango ethile. Injongo ecacileyo yayikusebenza kuwo wonke umsebenzi wokuhlelwa kwiixabiso ezilinganayo, ngokutshintsha phakathi kweesethi kunye nemisebenzi yokuhlelwa ngendlela efanelekileyo.

Sifumene ukuba ukusebenza okulinganayo kangako kule paradigm eninzi idibene ne-tendency ephezulu ekubhekeleni kwe-cybersex. Abantu abanalo mkhuba badla ngokugqithiseleyo okanye bengakuhoxiswa ekusebenziseni imifanekiso engamanyala. Iziphumo zibonisa ukuba ukulawulwa kolawulo olunciphise ukusebenza kwe-multitasking, xa ujongene nezinto eziphathekayo zoononophelo, kunokufaka isandla ekuziphatheni kakubi kunye nemiphumo emibi ebangelwa ukulaliswa kwe-cybersex. Nangona kunjalo, abantu abaneentlobo zokunyamekela i-cybersex addiction kubonakala benomnqweno wokuphepha okanye ukufikelela kwiimpawu zoononophala, njengoko kuxoxwa kwiimodeli ezikhuthazayo zokulutha.

21) Ukurhweba kamva imivuzo yokuzonwabisa okwangoku: Ukusetyenziswa koonografi nokukhawuleza Ukuhlawula (Negash et al., 2015) - [ulawulo olulawulayo oluhlwempuzekileyo: ulingo lwebangela] - Amacatshulwa:

Isifundo se-1: Abathathi-nxaxheba bagqibile ukusebenzisa iphonografi kwiphepha lemibuzo kunye nokulibaziseka kwezaphulelo kwiXesha 1 emva koko emva kweeveki ezine. Abathathi-nxaxheba baxela ukusetyenziswa kwamanyala okuqala okuphezulu kubonise izinga lokuncitshiswa kokulibaziseka kwiXesha 2, ukulawula isaphulelo sokuqala sokulibaziseka. Isifundo se-2: Abathathi-nxaxheba abaye bayayeka ukusebenzisa iphonografi babonisa isaphulelo sokulibaziseka esisezantsi kunabathathi-nxaxheba abangafuniyo ukutya abakuthandayo.

I-intanethi ye-intanethi ngumvuzo wesini obangela ukulibaziseka ukuhlawula ngokwahlukileyo kuneminye imivuzo yendalo, nangona xa kusetyenziswanga ukunyanzeliswa okanye umlutha. Olu phando lwenza inxaxheba ebalulekileyo, kubonisa ukuba umphumo uhamba ngaphezu kokuvusa okwethutyana.

Ukusetyenziswa koonografi kunokubonelela ngokukhawuleza ngokwesondo kodwa kunokufumana impembelelo kunye nokuchaphazela ezinye iinkalo zobomi bomntu, ngakumbi ulwalamano.

Ukufunyaniswa kukubonisa ukuba i-intanethi ye-intanethi ngumvuzo wesondo owenza ukulibaziseka ukuhlawula ngokwahlukileyo kuneminye imivuzo yemvelo. Ngoko ke kubalulekile ukuphatha imifanekiso engamanyala njengento ekhethekileyo yokufumana umvuzo, ukunyaniseka, kunye nezifundo zokulutha umlutha kunye nokusebenzisa oku ngokufanelekileyo kumntu ngamnye kunye nokunyanga.

22) Ukuxhatshazwa ngokwesondo kunye nokuxhatshazwa okungafanelekiyo Ukuqhelanisa ukuxhatshazwa kwe-Cybersex kumadoda angqingili (Laier et al., 2015) - [Iminqweno / uvakalelo olukhulu] - Isicatshulwa:

Iziphumo ezikhoyo zibonise ubudlelwane phakathi kwe-CyberSex Addiction (CA) ubunzima kunye nezibonakaliso zokuzikhusela ngokwesondo, kwaye ukujamelana nokuziphatha ngokwesondo kuxolelana ubudlelwane phakathi kokuzikhusela ngokwesini kunye neempawu ze-CA. Injongo yale sifundo yayiyikuvavanya lo mbambano kwisampuli yamadoda angqingili. Imibuzo ihlolwe iimpawu ze-CA, uvakalelo kwintlonipho yesondo, iifoto zoonografi zisetyenziselwa inkqubela, ukuziphatha kakubi ngokwesini, iimpawu zeengqondo, kunye neendlela zokuziphatha ngokwesini kunye ne-intanethi. Ngaphezu koko, abathathi-nxaxheba bajonga iividiyo zoononopopasho kwaye babonisa ukuvuswa kwabo ngokwesondo ngaphambi nangemva kwevidiyo. Iziphumo zabonisa ukudibanisa okunzulu phakathi kweempawu ze-CA kunye nezibonakaliso zokuvuselela ngokwesondo kunye nokuzikhukhumeza ngokwesondo, ukuhlangabezana nokuziphatha ngokwesini kunye neempawu zengqondo. I-CA yayingabandakanywa nokuziphatha kakubi kwezesondo kunye nexesha lokusebenzisa i-intanethi ngesonto. Ukujamelana nokuziphatha ngokwesondo kuyingcipheko ngokukhawuleza ubudlelwane phakathi kokuzikhusela ngokwesondo kunye ne-CA. Iziphumo zifaniswa nezo zichazwe ngabantu abesilisa kunye nabesifazana kwizifundo zangaphambilini kwaye zixutyushwa malunga nemvelaphi yeengcamango ze-CA, ezigqamisa indima yokuqiniswa okulungileyo kunye nokungalunganga ngenxa yokusetyenziswa kwe-cybersex.

23) Indima ye-Neuroinflammation kwi-Pathophysiology ye-Hypersexual Disorder (Jokinen et al., 2016) - [Impendulo yoxinzelelo olungasebenziyo kunye neuro-ukudumba] - Olu phononongo luxele amanqanaba aphezulu okujikeleza kweTumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) kwizilonda zesondo xa kuthelekiswa nolawulo olusempilweni. Amanqanaba aphakamileyo e-TNF (uphawu lokudumba) afunyenwe nakwabaxhaphaza iziyobisi nakwizilwanyana ezinamakhoboka eziyobisi (utywala, i-heroin, imeth). Kwakukho unxibelelwano olomeleleyo phakathi kwamanqanaba e-TNF kunye nezikali zokulinganisa ezilinganisa ubungqingili.

24) Indlela yokuziphatha ngokwesondo: i-Prefrontal kunye neLimbic Volume kunye nokusebenzisana (Schmidt et al., 2016) - [Ukungasebenzi kakuhle kwemijikelezo yangaphambili kunye novakalelo] - Olu luphononongo lwe-fMRI. Xa kuthelekiswa nolawulo olusempilweni lwezifundo ze-CSB (iziyobisi ezingamanyala) ziye zonyusa ivolumu ye-amygdala yasekhohlo kunye nokuncipha kokunxibelelana kokusebenza phakathi kwe-amygdala kunye ne-dorsolateral preortal cortex ye-DLPFC. Ukuncitshiswa kokunxibelelana kokusebenza phakathi kwe-amygdala kunye nokuhambelana kwangaphambili kwecortex kunye neziyobisi. Kucingelwa ukuba ukunxibelelana okungathathi ntweni kunciphisa ulawulo lwangaphambili lwecortex ngaphezulu kwempembelelo yomsebenzisi yokuzibandakanya ekuziphatheni okuluthayo. Olu phononongo lubonisa ukuba ubuthi beziyobisi bunokukhokelela kwinto engwevu kangako kwaye ke kunciphise umthamo we-amygdala kwiziyobisi. I-amygdala ihlala isebenza ngexesha lokujonga iphonografi, ngakumbi ngexesha lokuvezwa kokuqala kwesondo. Mhlawumbi ukuthanda izinto zesondo rhoqo kunye nokukhangela kunye nokufuna kukhokelela kwisiphumo esikhethekileyo kwi-amygdala kubasebenzisi abanyanzelekileyo be-porn. Ngenye indlela, iminyaka yobukhoboka be-porn kunye neziphumo ezibi kakhulu zoxinzelelo-kwaye cUkuxhalabisa uxinzelelo loluntu kuhambelana nokunyuka kwe-amygdala volume. Isifundo #16 ngenhla bafumanise ukuba "abantu abakhobelana ngesondo" banesistim sokuxinezeleka. Ngaba ukuxinezeleka okungapheliyo okuhlobene nokuxhatshazwa koononono / ngokwesondo, kunye nezinto ezenza isondo esisodwa, zikhokelela kwi-amygdala volume? Ingqungquthela:

Iziphumo zethu zangoku ziqulunqa umlinganiselo ophezulu kwintsimi echaphazelekayo kwisalathisi eshukumisayo kunye nokunxibelelana okuphantsi kokuphumla komnxeba we-prefrontal amanqwanqwa okulawula olawulo oluphezulu. Ukuphazanyiswa kwezi nethiwekhi kunokuchaza iipatheni zokuziphatha ezinobungozi kumvuzo ongqongileyo okanye umonakalo ophuculweyo kwiziphumo ezikhuthazayo zokukhuthaza. Nangona ukufunyaniswa kwethu okuphambanisayo kuhambelana nalabo base-SUD, ezi ziphumo zingabonakalisa ukungalingani njengomsebenzi weempembelelo ze-drug incordance. Ububungqina obonakalayo bubonisa ukuba kunokugqithiswa okunokwenzeka ngenkqubo yokulutha umlutha ngokukodwa ukuxhasa intsholongwane yokukhuthaza. Siye sabonisa ukuba umsebenzi kule nethwekhi yomnxeba uyathuthukiswa emva kokutshatyalaliswa kwiimpawu ezikhethekileyo zesondo okanye ezikhethiweyo [uBrand et al., 2016; Seok noSohn, 2015; Voon et al., 2014] kunye nentsebenziswano eyongeziweyo [uMechelmans et al., 2014] kwaye unomnqweno othe ngqo kwisigxina socansi kodwa kungekhona isifiso sesini esenziwa ngokubanzi [Brand et al., 2016; Voon et al., 2014]. Ukuqwalaselwa okubhekiselele kwisondo ngokucacileyo kuya kuhambelana nokukhethwa kwimiqathango yokuziphatha ngokwesondo ngoko kuqinisekisa ubungqina phakathi kwesimo sengxaki yesondo kunye neengxaki zokubambisana [Banca et al., 2016]. Ezi ziphumo zentsebenzo eyongeziweyo enxulumene neenkcukacha zocansi zihluke kweso siphumo (okanye i-stimulus engenakunqunyulwa) apho ukuhlaziywa okuphuculweyo, mhlawumbi kuhambelana nomgaqo wokunyamezela, kwandisa ukhetho lwentando yesini (Banca et al., 2016]. Ngokubonke ezi ziphumo zikunceda ukucacisa i-neurobiology engundoqo ye-CSB ekhokelela ekuqondeni okukhulu kwengxaki kunye nokuchongwa kwamanqaku okuthinteka.

25) Umsebenzi we-Ventral Striatum Xa ukhangele iifoto ze-Pornography ezikhethiweyo zihambelanayo kunye nezibonakaliso ze-Internet zoTywala (UBrand et al., 2016) -Ukuphinda uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde wenziwe Ukufumana i- # 1: Umsebenzi weziko lomvuzo (i-ventral striatum) wawuphezulu kwimifanekiso engamanyala. Ukufumana i- # 2: I-Ventral striatum reactivity ehambelana nenqaku le-intanethi lokulutha ngokwesini. Zombini ezi ziphumo zibonisa ubuntununtunu kwaye zihambelane ne imodeli yoxhatshazo. Ababhali bathi "Isiseko se-Neural sokulutha iphonografi kwi-Intanethi sinokuthelekiswa nezinye iziyobisi." Isicatshulwa:

Olunye uhlobo lwe-intanethi ye-intanethi yinto ephangaleleyo yokusetyenziswa kwezithombe ezingcolileyo, ebizwa ngokuba yi-cybersex okanye i-intanethi ye-pornography. Ucwaningo lwe-Neuroimaging lufumene umsebenzi owenzayo xa abathathi-nxaxheba bebukele isicatshulwa esicacileyo sezesondo xa kuqhathaniswa nezinto ezingabonakaliyo zesini / izinto eziphathekayo. Ngoku sithemba ukuba i-striral striatum kufuneka iphendule kwi-pornography ekhethiweyo ngokuthelekiswa nemifanekiso engabonakaliyo yoononopopasho kunye nokuba umsebenzi we-ventral striatum kulo mzekelo ufanele uhambelane neempawu ezizimeleyo zokuxhatshazwa kwe-pornography. Siye safunda i-19 abathathi-nxaxheba besilisa abathandanayo nomfanekiso wesithombe kuquka izinto ezikhethiweyo ezikhethiweyo nezingabonwayo.

Imifanekiso esuka kwinqanaba elikhethiweyo libalwe njengento ephakanyisayo, engaphantsi kakubi, kwaye isondele ngakumbi. Impendulo ye-Ventral striatum yayinamandla kwiimeko ezikhethiweyo ezifaniswa nemifanekiso engakhethiweyo. Umsebenzi we-Ventral striatum kulo mlinganiso wawunxulumene neempawu ezizimeleyo ze-intanethi. Ubunzima bokuzibonakalisa obunzima bokubaluleka kwakuyiyo kuphela yongqinisiso oluphawulekayo ekuhlaziyeni ngokunyanisekileyo kunye neempembelelo ze-striatum njengezinto ezixhomekeke kuzo kunye nezibonakaliso ezizimeleyo zokuxhatshazwa kweentlobano zoonografi, ukuziphatha okuxhatshazwa ngokwesondo, ukuziphatha okubi, ukuxinezeleka, ukuqonda, kunye nokuziphatha ngokwesondo ezinsukwini zokugqibela njengoko . Iziphumo zixhasa indima ye-ventral striatum ekusebenziseni ukukulindela umvuzo kunye nokuxhaswa okuxhomekeke kwizinto eziphathekayo ezikhethiweyo eziphathekayo. Iinkqubo zokulindela umvuzo kwi-ventral striatum zinokufaka isandla kwisichazelo se-neural sokuba kutheni abantu abathile abanomdla kunye neengcamango zesondo basemngciphekweni wokulahlekelwa ukulawula kwabo kwi-intanethi yokusetyenziswa kwamanyala.

26) Isimo sokuThuthukiswa kwesisombululo kunye ne-Neural Ukudibanisa kwiZifundo ngeendlela zokuziphatha ngokwesondo (Klucken et al., 2016) -Ukuphinda ukwenze kwakhona / ukubonakalisa uvakalelo kunye neesekethe ezingasebenzi kakuhle) - Olu phando lwaseJamani lwe-fMRI luphindaphinde iziphumo ezimbini eziphambili ezivela Voon et al., 2014 kwaye Kuhn kunye neGallinat 2014. Iziphumo eziPhambili: I-correlates ye-neural yemeko yokutya kunye nokuxhuma kwe-neural yatshintshwa kwiqela le-CSB. Ngokutsho kwabaphandi, utshintsho lokuqala - ukunyusa ukusebenza kwe-amygdala-kunokubonakalisa imeko yokuqhutywa (enkulu "yocingo" kwiindawo ezingathathi hlangothi ngaphambili ezazichaza imifanekiso engamanyala). Utshintsho lwesibini- ukunciphisa ukudityaniswa phakathi kwe-ventral striatum kunye necortex yangaphambili - inokuba luphawu lokungakwazi ukulawula iimpembelelo. Abaphandi bathi, "Olu tshintsho luhambelana nolunye uphononongo lokuphononongwa kwe-neural correlates yeengxaki zokulutha kunye nokusilela kolawulo." Iziphumo zokuvuselelwa kwe-amygdalar enkulu kwizikhokelo (ku khuthazwa) kunye nokunciphisa uxhumano phakathi kwesikhungo somvuzo kunye ne-prefrontal cortex (ukungazenzisiZimbini zeenguqulelo ezinkulu zobuchopho ezibonwe kwikhoboka leziyobisi. Ukongeza, i-3 yabasebenzisi be-porn abanyanzelekileyo abangama-20 banesifo se-orgasmic-erection disorder. Isicatshulwa:

Ngokuqhelekileyo, ukunyuka kwe-amygdala kwenzelwe ukunyuka komsebenzi kunye nokunciphisa ngokuthe ngcembe kwe-PF-coupling-PFC ukuvumela ukucatshungulwa malunga ne-etiology kunye nokunyangwa kwe-CSB. Izifundo ze-CSB zibonakala zilungele ukuseka imibutho phakathi kwamacandelo angathathi hlangothi kunye nesistim sokungqinelana ngokwesondo. Ngaloo ndlela, ezi zifundo ziyakwazi ukuhlangabezana neengongoma ezenza ukuziphatha okuthe ngqo. Ingaba oku kukhokelela kwi-CSB okanye umphumo we-CSB kufuneka uphendulwe ngophando olusasa. Ukongezelela, iinkqubo zokulawulwa kwezimo eziphazamisekileyo, ezibonakaliswayo ekunciphiseni ukuxhamla kwe-prefrontal, zingaphinde zisekele ukugcinwa kokuziphatha kwengxaki.

27) Ukunyanzeliswa Ngaphandle kokusetyenziswa kakubi kwePathological of Remrues and Non-Drugs (Banca et al., 2016) - [cue cacac reactivity / sensitization, enhanced response]] - Olu phando lwe-fMRI yeYunivesithi yaseCambridge ithelekisa imiba yokunyanzelwa butywala, izidla ngotywala, iziyobisi kumdlalo wevidiyo kunye neziyobisi ezingamanyala (CSB). Izicatshulwa:

Ngokungafani nezinye izifo, i-CSB kuthelekiswa ne-HV ibonise ukufumana ngokukhawuleza ukufumana iziphumo kunye nokunyamezela okukhulu kwiimeko zokuvuza kungakhathaliseki ukuba ziphumo. Izifundo ze-CSB azibonanga naluphi na ukuphazamiseka okuthe ngqo kumsebenzi wokutshintshwa okanye ukuguqulwa kokufunda. Ezi ziphumo zidibanisa kunye neziphumo zethu zangaphambilini zokukhethwa okukhethiweyo kwimiqathango ephathelele kwisini okanye iziphumo zemali, ngokubanzi iphakamisa ukuqonda okuphuculweyo ukuvuza (Banca et al., 2016). Uphando olongezelelweyo usebenzisa imivuzo engundoqo luboniswe.

28) Ukuqwenela ngokukhawuleza ukukhwabanisa i-Pornography kunye nokuFundiswa kweNkcazo UkuXela iziThambeko kwi-Cyber ​​Sex Addiction kwiSample of regular users of Cybersex (Snagkowski et al., 2016) -Ukuphinda uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde ukuba wenze lo nto, uphendule ngendlela efanelekileyo) Izicatshulwa:

Akukho mvumelwano malunga neendlela zokuxilonga ze-cyber sex addiction. Ezinye zihamba emva kokufana nokuxhomekeka kwezinto eziphathekayo, apho ukufunda okubambisanayo kuyindlela ebalulekileyo. Kule sifundo, i-86 indoda engatshatanga ngesondo iyagqiba iPavlovian Standard ukuya kwi-Instrumental Transfer Task eguqulelwe imifanekiso engamanyala ukuze iphande i-learning association kunye nokulutha kwe-cybersex. Ukongezelela, ukuthanda ngokuzimela ngenxa yokubukela imifanekiso yeentlobano zesini kunye nokunyamekela ukukhwabanisa i-cybersex. Iziphumo zibonise impembelelo yokuzimela ngokuzenzekelayo ekuthandeleni ukuxhatshazwa ngocansi lwe-inthanethi, i-moderation by learning association. Ngokubanzi, ezi ziphumo zibhekiselele kwinxaxheba ebalulekileyo yokufunda inxulumano ekuphuhliseni ukulutha kwe-cybersex, ngelixa kunika ubungqina obunzulu bokufana nokuxhomekeka kwezinto eziphathekayo kunye noxilongo lwe-cybersex. Ngesishwankathelo, iziphumo zophando lwangoku zibonisa ukuba ukufunda ngokubambisana kunokudlala indima ebalulekileyo malunga nokuphuhliswa kokulutha kwe-cybersex. Iziphumo zethu zibonelela ubungqina obuninzi bokufana nokuxhatshazwa kwe-cybersex kunye nokuxhomekeka kwezinto ezixhomekeke ekubeni iziphumo zenkanuko yokuziphendulela kunye nokufunda okudibeneyo kuboniswe.

29) Iimoya zitshintsha emva kokubukela iphonografi kwi-Intanethi zixhomekeke kwiimpawu ze-intanethi-i-pornography-ukujonga ingxaki (ILayer kunye neBrand,2016) - [Iminqweno / uvakalelo olukhulu, ukuthanda okuncinci] - Amacatshulwa:

Iziphumo eziphambili zesifundo kukuba ukutyekela kwi-Intanethi ye-Intanethi ye-Pornography (IPD) yayinxulumene kakubi kunye nokuziva kakuhle, ukuvuka, nokuzola kunye nokuxhalabisa ngokubonakalayo kwimpilo yemihla ngemihla kunye nokukhuthaza ukusebenzisa i-intanethi ye-intanethi ngokubhekiselele ekufuneni kunye nokuphepha ngokweemvakalelo. Ukongezelela, ukutyekela kwi-IPD kwakunxulumene kakubi nemimoya ngaphambi nangemva kokubukela i-intanethi ye-intanethi kunye nokunyuka okwenyani nokuzola. Ubudlelwane phakathi kokuthambekela kwi-IPD kunye nolangazelelo lokufuna ngenxa ye-Intanethi-ukusetyenziswa kwe-ponografi kwakumodareyithwa kuvavanyo lwe-orgasm. Ngokubanzi, iziphumo zophononongo ziyahambelana nengcinga yokuba i-IPD inxulunyaniswa nenkuthazo yokufumana ukoneliseka ngokwesondo kunye nokuthintela okanye ukujamelana neemvakalelo eziphikisayo kunye nokucinga ukuba ukutshintsha kwemood kulandela ukusetyenziswa gwenxa kwe-IPD (Cooper et al., 1999 kwaye I-Laier kunye neBrits, i-2014).

30) Ukuziphatha kakubi kwezesondo kubantu abadala: Iinkampani kuzo zonke iinkqubo zonyango, zokuziphatha kunye ne-neurocognitive (2016) - [Ukusebenza kakubi kolawulo] - Abantu abaneeNgxaki zeSondo eziNengxaki (i-PSB) babonisa ukusilela kwe-neuro-cognitive. Ezi ziphumo zibonisa ukuba zihlwempuzekile esebenzayo (ulwaphulo-mthetho) inkalo yengqondo ebalulekileyo eyenzeka kwizilonda zamachiza. Ambalwa amacatshulwa:

Isiphumo esisodwa esibonakalayo kulolu hlalutyo kukuba i-PSB ibonisa imibutho ebalulekileyo kunye nenani lezinto ezinokonkcenkceshela, kuquka ukuzithemba okuphantsi, ukunciphisa umgangatho wobomi, i-BMI ephakamileyo, kunye nemilinganiselo ephezulu yokuxhatshazwa kweengxaki ezininzi ...

... kunokwenzeka ukuba iinkalo zekliniki ezichongiweyo kwiqela le-PSB ziyabangelwa yi-variable variable ephakamisa ii-PSB kunye nezinye iimpawu zeklinikhi. Enye into ebalulekileyo yokuzalisa le nxaxheba ingaba yizinto ezingenayo i-neurocognitive deficits eziboniswe kwiqela le-PSB, ngokukodwa ezo eziphathelele kwimemori yokusebenza, ukunyanzeliswa / ukulawula okuphazamisayo, kunye nokwenza izigqibo. Ukususela kulo mboniso, kunokwenzeka ukuba ulandele iingxaki ezibonakalayo kwi-PSB kunye neenkcukacha ezongezelelweyo zeklinikhi, ezifana nokudityaniswa kwemvakalelo, kwiingxaki ezithile zokuqonda ...

Ukuba iingxaki zeengcamango ezichazwe kuloluhlalutyo empeleni ziyinxalenye ebalulekileyo ye-PSB, oku kunokuba nempembelelo ekliniki.

31) I-Methylation ye-HPA Axis Izidalwa ezinxulumene nabantu abane-Hypersexual Disorder (Jokinen et al., 2017) - [Impendulo yoxinzelelo kuxinzelelo, utshintsho lwe-epigenetic] - Olu lulandelayo #16 ngenhla efumanise ukuba iziyobisi ezabelana ngesondo zineenkqubo zoxinzelelo ezingasebenzi kakuhle- utshintsho oluphambili lwe-neuro-endocrine olubangelwa likhoboka. Uphononongo lwangoku lufumene utshintsho lwe-epigenetic kwiijeni eziphambili kwimpendulo yoxinzelelo lomntu kunye nokunxulumana ngokusondeleyo nokulutha. Ngotshintsho lwe-epigenetic, Ulandelelwano lweDNA alutshintshi (njengoko kwenzekayo ngenguqu). Endaweni yoko, i-gene ishicilelwe kwaye ibonakaliso yayo iphendukile okanye iphantsi (Ividiyo emfutshane ichaza i-epigenetics). Utshintsho lwe-epigenetic oluchazwe kulolu pho nonongo lubangele ukuguqulwa komsebenzi wegciwane le-CRF. CRF i-neurotransmitter kunye nehommone eqhuba iimpawu zokulutha ezifana nezifiso, kwaye ngumdlali omkhulu kwiimpawu ezininzi zokurhoxiswa ezimalunga nazo izinto kwaye izilingo zokuziphatha, kubandakanya umlutha wezobisi.

32) Ukuhlolisana Ubudlelwane phakathi kokunyanzeliswa ngokwesondo kunye neengqondo ezijongene nocwangco kumazwi anxulumene nezesondo kwiqela labantu abaxhatshazwa ngokwesondo (Albery et al., 2017) - [cue cacac reactivity / sensitization, desensitization] - Olu phononongo luphindaphinda iziphumo ze- esi sifundo seYunivesithi ye-2014 Cambridge, ethelekisa ukuthanda ingqalelo kweziyobisi ezingamanyala kulawulo olusempilweni. Nantsi into entsha: Uphononongo ludibanise "iminyaka yokwabelana ngesondo" kunye ne-1) amanqaku okulutha ngokwesini kunye ne-2) iziphumo zomsebenzi wokukhathalela ingqalelo. Phakathi kwabo bafumana amanqaku aphakamileyo kumakhoboka ezesondo, iminyaka embalwa yamava ezesondo yayihambelana nokuthathelwa ingqalelo okukhulu (inkcazo yenkcazo). Amanqanaba aphezulu okunyanzelwa ngokwesini + iminyaka embalwa yamava ezesondo = iimpawu ezinkulu zokulutha (ukuthathelwa ingqalelo okukhulu, okanye ukuphazamiseka). Kodwa ukuthathelwa ingqalelo kuthoba ngokukhawuleza kubasebenzisi abanyanzelekileyo, kwaye kuyanyamalala kwelona nani liphezulu leminyaka yamava ezesondo. Ababhali baqukumbele ngelithi esi siphumo sinokubonisa ukuba iminyaka engaphezulu "yokunyanzelwa kokuziphatha ngokwesondo" ikhokelela ekuziqheliseni ngakumbi okanye ekunciphiseni ngokubanzi impendulo yolonwabo (ukungafuneki). Isicatshulwa kwisiphelo:

Enye inkcazo enokwenzeka kwezi ziphumo kukuba njengokuba umntu oziphatha ngokwesondo uqhuba ngokuziphatha okunyanzelekileyo, ithemplate ephakanyisiweyo iyaxhuma [36-38] kwaye emva kwexesha, ukuziphatha okubi kakhulu kuyafuneka ukuba kufikelelwe inqanaba elifanayo lokuvusa. Kuqhutyelwa phambili ukuba njengoko umntu eqhuba ngokuziphatha okunyanzelekileyo, i-neuropathways ingenasisiseko kwi-'iformal 'yesigculi sezesondo okanye imifanekiso kunye nabantu abaphendukela kwimimiselo engaphezulu' yokugqithisa 'ukuze baqonde ukuvusa okufunayo. Oku kuhambelana nomsebenzi obonisa ukuba 'amadoda enempilo' ajwayele ukukhutshwa ngokucacileyo ngexesha elizeleyo kwaye ukuba le ndawo ibonakaliswe ngokunciphisa ukuphakanyiswa kweempendulo kunye nokuphazamiseka [39]. Oku kuphakamisa ukuba abathathi-nxaxheba abathintekayo ngokobulili baye baba 'banqamle' okanye abangabandakanyekanga kumazwi 'aqhelekileyo' anxulumene ngokwesondo asetyenziswe kulolu cwaningo kwaye njengolu hlobo lubonisa ukunciphisa ukunyaniseka, ngelixa abo banyanzelisiwe kunye namava angaphantsi babonisa ukuphazamiseka kuba i-stimuli ibonisa ukuqonda kwengqondo.

33) Ukusebenza kweGosa lokuSebenza ngokuSigxina ngokwezesondo kunye nokungaboni ngesondo Ngaphambi nangemva kokubukela iVideo yeHeroti (Messina et al., 2017) - [Ukusebenza kolawulo oluhlwempuzekileyo, umnqweno omkhulu / uvakalelo Ukusebenza ngokuhlwempuzekileyo kokusebenza xa kutyhilwa imikhwa enxulumene nokulutha luphawu lokuphazamiseka kweziyobisi (kubonisa zombini zatshintshile izijikelezo zokuhamba kwaye ku khuthazwa). Amacatshulwa:

Oku kufumanisa kubonisa ukuguquguquka okungcono kwengqondo emva kokuvuselelwa ngokwesondo ngokulawulwa ngokumalunga nabachaphazelekayo ngokwesini. Ezi nkcukacha zenkxaso zengcamango yokuba amadoda afuna ukuziphatha ngokwesini ayenakuyisebenzisela impembelelo yokufunda evela kumava, oko kunokubangela ukuguqulwa kokuziphatha okungcono. Oku kuya kuqondwa njengokungabikho komphumo wokufunda ngeqela loxhatshazo ngokwesini xa bexhatshazwa ngokwesondo, okufana noko kwenzekayo kumjikelezo wokuxhatshazwa ngokwesondo, oqala ngokunyuka kwenyathelo lokwabelana ngesondo, olulandelwe ukusetyenziswa kwesondo izikripthi kunye ne-orgasm, ngokuqhelekileyo kubandakanya ukufikelela kwiimeko eziyingozi.

34) Ngaba Iingcamango Zononophelo Zingayilungisa? Isifundo seFMRI samadoda afuna unyango lweengxaki zoononophelo Sebenzisa (Gola et al., 2017) -Ukuphinda uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde uphinde usebenze Izicatshulwa:

Amadoda kunye nokusetyenziswa kweengxaki zoononophelo kweengxaki (PPU) ezahlukileyo ekusebenziseni ubuchopho ekubhekiseleleni kwimifanekiso yokukhwabanisa, kodwa kungekhona ekuphenduleni imizobo yodwa, ngokuhambelana intshisekelo yombono wobugqwetha. Ukusebenza kwengqondo kwakuhamba kunye nokuziphatha okwandisiweyo kokujonga imifanekiso engamanyala (ephezulu 'yokufuna'). I-Ventral striatal reactivity ye-cues eqikelela imifanekiso engamanyala yayihambelana kakhulu nobukrakra be-PPU, isixa sokwenza iphonografi ngeveki kunye nenani lokuphulula amalungu esini ngeveki. Iziphumo zethu zicebisa ukuba njengokusebenzisa iziyobisi kunye nokuphazamiseka ekungcakazeni iindlela ze-neural kunye neendlela zokuziphatha ezinxulunyaniswa nokulindeleka kokuboniswa kwezixhobo ezinxulumene nokubaluleka kweempawu ezifanelekileyo ze-PPU. Ezi ziphumo zibonisa ukuba i-PPU inokumela isimilo sokuziphatha kwaye ungenelelo ngoncedo ekujoliseni isimilo kunye neziyobisi zikholelekile ekuqwalaseleni uhlengahlengiso kunye nokusetyenziswa ekuncedeni amadoda ane-PPU.

35) Imilinganiselo yokuCamngca kunye engeyiyo yoMvakalelo: Ngaba iyayikhathaza ngokuphindaphindiweyo kweeNografi? (IKunaharan et al., 2017) - [Ukuziqhelanisa okanye ukungafuneki] -Uvavanyo oluvavanyiweyo lwabasebenzisi be-porn (ukufundwa kwe-EEG kunye neMpendulo ye-Startle) kwimifanekiso eyahlukeneyo enokubangela iimvakalelo- kubandakanya ne-erotica. Uphononongo lufumene ulwahlulo oluninzi lwe-neurological phakathi kwabasebenzisi abancinci be-porn kunye nabasebenzisi abaphezulu be-porn. Izicatshulwa:

Iziphumo zibonisa ukuba ukusetyenziswa koonografi okwandisiweyo kubonakala kunempembelelo kwiimpendulo ezingenayo ingqalelo kwiimvakalelo ezenziweyo zengqondo ezingaboniswa ngokuzichaza ngokucacileyo.

4.1. Iingqamaniso ezicacileyo: Okuthakazelisayo, iqela eliphezulu lokusebenzisa iigrazil lilinganise imifanekiso engabonakaliyo njengento engathandekiyo kuneqela eliphakathi. Ababhali bathetha ukuba oku kungakho ngenxa yemifanekiso "ye-soft-core" yeemifanekiso "ezinobunzima" eziqulethwe kwiziko le-IAPS ngokungaboneleli izinga lokuvuselela, njengokuba kuboniswe nguHarper noHodgins [58] ukuba ngokubukela rhoqo kwezinto eziphathekayo zobulili, abaninzi abantu bahlala besanda ukujonga izinto ezinzulu ukuze bahlale bezinga elifanayo lokuvuselela umzimba. Udidi olumnandi "lwamazwi" lwakubona ukulinganisa kweepalence ngamacandelo amathathu ukuba afaneke kunye neqela eliphezulu lokusebenzisa imifanekiso njengemifanekiso engathandekiyo ngokwemilinganiselo kunamanye amaqela. Oku kungaphinda kube ngenxa yeemifanekiso "ezimnandi" ezingenakukhuthaza abantu ngabanye kwiqela eliphezulu lokusebenzisa. Ucwaningo luye lwabonisa ngokuqhubekayo ukuhlaliswa komzimba ekusebenziseni umxholo wesondlo ngenxa yempembelelo yomntu kubantu abahlala befuna izinto zobulili [378]. Ngabambano bombhali ukuba le miphumo ingaba i-akhawunti yeziphumo ezibonwe.

4.3. I-Startle Reflex Modulation (SRM): Isiphumo esiphezulu se-amplitude sempembelelo esibonakalayo kumaqela aphantsi asebenzisa ama-porn amaqela angacaciswa ngabo bahlukileyo ngenjongo yokuphepha ukusetyenziswa koononografi, njengoko bangayifumana into engathandekiyo. Ngaphandle koko, iziphumo ezifunyenweyo nazo zingaba ngenxa yempembelelo yokuhlala, apho abantu kula maqela bajonga ngakumbi izinto ezingcolileyo kunokuba zichazwe ngokucacileyo-mhlawumbi ngenxa yezizathu zentloni phakathi kwabanye, njengokuba iziphumo zokuhlala ziboniswe ukwandisa ukukhanya kwamehlo okuphazamiseka kwamehlo [4142].

36) Ukubonakaliswa kwi-Stimuli yoSondo kuHlulela kwiNkcazo yokuThuthukiswa koPhulo oluPhambili kwiNkcazo yoLuntu phakathi kwabantu (ICheng kunye neChiou, 2017) - [Ukusebenza kolawulo oluhlwempuzekileyo, ukungxamiseka okungakumbi- ulingelo lokuzibangela] - Kwizifundo ezibini ezichazwe kwisistim esibonwayo sezesondo kubangele: 1) isaphulelo esithe kratya (ukungakwazi ukulibazisa ukuzanelisa), 2) utyekelo olukhulu lokuzibandakanya kwi-cyber-delinquency, 3) enkulu utyekelo lokuthenga iimpahla zomgunyathi kunye nokugenca iakhawunti yomntu ye-Facebook. Ukuthathwa kunye oku kubonisa ukuba ukusetyenziswa koononophelo kwandisa ukunyanzeliswa kwaye kunokunciphisa imisebenzi ethile yolawulo (ukuzithiba, ukugweba, ukubonwa kwangaphambili, ukulawula ukunyanzelisa). Isicatshulwa:

Abantu bahlala behlangana nesistim sezesondo ngexesha lokusebenzisa i-intanethi. Uphando luye lwabonisa ukuba ukunyanzelisa isishumo sezesondo kunokukhokelela ekubeni unomdla omkhulu kumadoda, njengoko kubonakaliswe kwisaphulelo esiphezulu sexeshana (oko kukuthi, ukuthambekela kokukhetha amancinci, ukuzuzisa ngokukhawuleza kwiindawo ezinkulu nakwixesha elizayo).

Ekugqibeleni, iziphumo ezikhoyo zibonisa umbutho phakathi kwesisombululo sezesondo (umzekelo, ukubonakalisa imifanekiso yabesifazane abasetyhini okanye iingubo zokuvusa ngesondo) kunye nokubandakanyeka kwamadoda kwi-cyber delinquency. Iziphumo zethu zibonisa ukuba ukunyaniseka kwabantu kunye nokuzithiba, njengoko kubonakaliswe ukuhlawulelwa kwesikhashana, banokungaphumeleli ekujonganeni nesisombululo sezesondo. Amadoda angenelwa ekubekeni iliso nokuba ukubonakaliswa kwesistim sezesondo kuhambelana nokukhetha kwabo kunye nokuziphatha kwabo. Izinto esizifumanisayo zibonisa ukuba ukuhlangabezana nesisombululo sokwabelana ngesondo kunokubangela ukuba amadoda angene endleleni ye-cyber delinquency

Iziphumo ezikhoyo zibonisa ukuba ukufumaneka okuphezulu kwesistim sezesondo kwi-cyberpace kunokunxulunyaniswa ngokusondeleyo nokuziphatha gwenxa kwe-cyber kunokuba bekucingelwa ngaphambili.

37) Iziganeko zokucwangcisa (iNgxaki) Ukusetyenziswa kwe-Intanethi Izinto ezicacileyo zesondo: Inxaxheba yesiThumo sokuThatshazwa ngokwesondo kunye neNdlela ecacileyo ukuThambekela kwizinto ezicacileyo zesondo (Stark et al., 2017) - [cueacac reactivity / sensitization / cravings] - Amacatshulwa:

Uphononongo lwangoku luphandwe ukuba iinjongo zesondo zesenzo kunye nokuziphatha okuthe ngqo kwizinto eziphathekayo ngokwesondo ziyi-predictors ye-SEM engxaki kunye nokusetyenziswa kwexesha eliqhelekileyo elijongene ne-SEM. Ngendlela yokuziphatha, sasebenzisa umsebenzi we-Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT) wokulinganisa ukuthambekela okuthe ngqo kwizinto zesini. Ulungelelwano oluhle phakathi kokuthambekela okuthe ngqo kwi-SEM kunye nexesha eliqhelekileyo elichithwa ekubukeni i-SEM linokucaciswa ngemiphumo engqalelo: Ukunyamekela okuthe ngqo kunokuthi kuchazwe njengengqalelo kwi-SEM. Isihloko esinokubaluleka kwimiba engathandabuzwayo sinokutsaliswa ngakumbi kwiinkcukacha zesondo kwi-Intanethi ngenxa yexesha elide elichithwe kwiziko le-SEM.

38) Ukuthotyelwa koMlingo woTyhila weNzululwazi kusekelwe kwiNkqubo yeComputerational Neurophysiological (2018) - Ngcaciso:

Kulo phepha, indlela yokusebenzisa umqondiso wengqondo evela kwindawo yangaphambili efunyenweyo usebenzisa i-EEG icetyiswa ukuba ibone ukuba umntu othabatha inxaxheba unokufumana umlutha wobugqwetha okanye ngenye indlela. Isebenza ngendlela ehambelana nombuzo oqhelekileyo wengqondo. Iziphumo zokuvavanya zibonisa ukuba abathathi-nxaxheba abanomlwelwe banomsebenzi ogqamile we-alfayili kwinqanaba leengqondo eliphambili xa kuthelekiswa nabathathi-nxaxheba abangengabo. Ingabonwa ngokusetyenziswa kweemandla zombane usebenzisa i-Low Resolution Tomomagnetic Tomography (LORETA). I-band ye -ta ibonisa ukuba kukho ukungalingani phakathi komlutha kunye nongekho. Nangona kunjalo, ukwahlula akucaci njengobumba be-alpha.

39) Ubuninzi bezinto ezibuhlungu kunye nokudibanisa ukulungiswa kombuso kwi-temporal gyrus phakathi kwabantu abaneengxaki zokuxhatshazwa koxhatshazo (2018) - [ukusilela kwezinto ezingwevu kwicortex yokwexeshana, ukunxibelelana okukhohlakeleyo kokusebenza phakathi kwecortex yexeshana kunye ne-precuneus kunye ne-caudate] - Isifundo se-fMRI ngokuthelekisa ngononophelo abavavanywa ngokwesini iziyobisi ("ingxaki yokuziphatha kwabafazi") kwizifundo zolawulo olusempilweni. Xa kuthelekiswa nolawulo lweziyobisi zesini: 1) kuncitshiswe into engwevu kwii-lobes zexeshana (imimandla enxulumene nokuthintela inkanuko yesini); I-2) inciphise i-precuneus kwi-temporal cortex esebenzayo yokunxibelelana (inokubonisa ubuchwephesha kumandla okutshintsha ingqalelo); I-3) inciphise i-caudate kwi-temporal cortex esebenzayo yokunxibelelana (inokuthintela ulawulo oluphezulu lweempembelelo). Izicatshulwa:

Ezi ziphumo zibonisa ukuba ukulahleka kwesakhiwo kwi-gyrus yesikhashana kunye nokuhlanganiswa okusebenzayo phakathi kwe-gyrus yesikhashana kunye neendawo ezithile (oko kukuthi, i-precuneus ne-caudate) inokubangela ukuphazamiseka kwi-tonic yokuvimbela isondo ngoomntu one-PHB. Ngaloo ndlela, ezi ziphumo zibonisa ukuba utshintsho kwisakhiwo kunye noxanduva olusebenzayo kwi-gyrus ye-temporal lunokuba yimpawu ezithile ze-PHB kwaye zingaba ngabaviwa be-biomarker yokuxilongwa kwe-PHB.

Ukwandiswa kwezinto ezingwevu kwitoni ye-cerebellar yasekunene kunye nokunyuka kokudityaniswa kweetoni ye-cerebellar yasekhohlo kunye ne-STG yasekhohlo kwajongwa kwakhona…. Ke ngoko, kunokwenzeka ukuba ukonyuka komthamo wezinto ezingwevu kunye nokunxibelelana okusebenzayo kwi-cerebellum kunxulunyaniswa nokuziphatha okunyanzelekileyo kubantu abane-PHB.

Isishwankathelo, i-VBM yangoku kunye novavanyo lokusebenza oluxhamlayo lubonisa ukungaphumeleli kwimiba ebomvu kunye nokuxhumeka komsebenzi kwi-gyrus yexesha eliphakathi kwabantu abane-PHB. Okubaluleke nakakhulu, isakhiwo esinciphileyo kunye nokuxhuma okusebenzayo kwakunxulumene kakubi ne-PHB. Ezi ziphumo zibonelela iinkcukacha ezintsha kwiindlela ezisetyenziswayo ze-neural ze-PHB.

40) Iintlobo ze-intanethi-i-intanethi-sebenzisa ingxaki: Ukwahlukana kwamadoda nabasetyhini malunga nokunyanzeliswa kwezinto eziphathekayo zobulili (2018) -Ukuphinda ukwenze kwakhona / ukukhuthaza, ukuthanda ukuphucula). Izicatshulwa

Ababhali abaliqela bajonga i-Intanethi-iphonografi-sebenzisa ingxaki (IPD) njengengxaki yokulutha. Enye yeendlela eziye zafundwa nzulu kwizinto ezinengxaki yokusetyenziswa kweziyobisi kunye nokusetyenziswa gwenxa kweziyobisi kukukhulisa umdla wokuthathela ingqalelo imikhwa enxulumene nokulutha. Ukuthathelwa ingqalelo kuthathelwa ingqalelo njengeenkqubo zokuqonda zomntu ngamnye ezichaphazeleka kukunxibelelana okunxulumene neziyobisi okubangelwa yimeko yenkuthazo yomgangatho ngokwawo. Kucingelwa kwimodeli ye-I-PACE yokuba kubantu abaqhelekileyo ekuphuhliseni iimpawu ze-IPD ezingaziwayo kunye nokusebenza kwakhona kunye nokunqwenela kuvela kunye nokwanda kwinkqubo yokulutha. Ukuphanda ngendima yokuqwalaselwa kwengqwalaselo kuphuhliso lwe-IPD, siphande isampulu yabathathi-nxaxheba abesilisa nabasetyhini abali-174. Umkhethe okhathaleleyo walinganiswa noMsebenzi woPhando oluBonakalayo, apho abathathi-nxaxheba kwafuneka baphendule kwiintolo ezivela emva kwemifanekiso engamanyala okanye engathathi hlangothi. Ukongeza, abathathi-nxaxheba kwafuneka babonakalise ukuvuswa kwabo ngokwesondo okubangelwa yimifanekiso engamanyala. Ngaphaya koko, ukutyekela kwi-IPD kwakulinganiswa kusetyenziswa uvavanyo olufutshane lwe-Internetsex Addiction. Iziphumo zolu phononongo zibonise ubudlelwane phakathi kwengqwalaselo yokuqwalaselwa kunye nobukrakra beempawu ze-IPD ngokuyinxenye eziphakathi zizalathi zokuphinda zisebenze kwakhona kunye nokunqwenela. Ngelixa amadoda nabasetyhini ngokubanzi behluka kumaxesha okuphendula ngenxa yemifanekiso engamanyala, uhlalutyo lokumodareyitha olulinganiselweyo luveze ukuba uthatho-nxaxheba olwenzeka ngokuzimeleyo ngaphandle kwesondo kwimeko yeempawu ze-IPD. Iziphumo zixhasa uqikelelo lwentetho yemodeli ye-I-PACE ngokubhekisele kwisikhuthazo sezinto ezinxulumene nokulutha kwaye ziyahambelana nezifundo zokujongana nokusebenza kwakhona kunye nokunqwenela ukuphazamiseka ekusebenziseni iziyobisi.

Ezi zinto zifunyenwe ngeengxaki zegazi:

  1. Ubungqina obubi obuphathelene noxilongo lwe-3: ku khuthazwaukungafuneki, yaye ukungazenzisi.
  2. Ukusetyenziswa koonobumba obuninzi kunxulumene nombono ongaphantsi kwinqanaba le-circuit (dorsal striatum).
  3. Ukusetyenziswa kobugqwetha obuninzi kunxulumene nomsebenzi ongaphantsi komvuzo weesekethe xa ubukela ngokufutshane imifanekiso yesondo.
  4. Ukusetyenziswa koonobumba obuninzi kunxibelelana kunye nokuphazamisa ukuxhamla kwee-neural phakathi kwesekethe yomvuzo kunye ne-prefrontal cortex.
  5. Izilwanyana zazinomsebenzi omkhulu kwizinto zesondo, kodwa ubuncinci besenzo sombono oqhelekileyo (ukuxhathisa umlutha weziyobisi).
  6. I-Porn usetyenziso / ukuchasana noononophelo oluhambelanayo nokuphuculwa kokuncishiswa kokulibaziseka (ukungakwazi ukulibazisa ukuthotywa). Oku kuwuphawu lolawulo oluphambeneyo.
  7. I-60% yezifundo ezinyanzelekileyo zoononophala kwisifundo esinye sinamava e-ED okanye asezantsi e-libido kunye namaqabane, kodwa hayi ngoononophala: bonke bathi ukusetyenziswa kwe-intanethi kubangele i-ED / libido ephantsi.
  8. Ukunyanzeliswa kwengqalelo xa kuthelekiswa nabasebenzisi beziyobisi. Ibonisa ukukhuthaza (umveliso we DeltaFosb).
  9. Ukufuna kakhulu kunye nokunqwenela iphonografi, kodwa hayi ukuthanda kakhulu. Oku kungqinelana nemodeli eyamkelweyo yokulutha- ukukhuthaza ukukhuthaza.
  10. Iidemon eziluthayo zinokukhetha ngokukhethekileyo kwinto yokwabelana ngesondo kodwa ubuchopho babo buqhelekile ngokukhawuleza kwimifanekiso yesondo. Ayikho ngaphambili.
  11. Abancinci abasebenzisi boononophelo baxhomekeke ngakumbi kwi-reactivity kwi-center centre.
  12. Ukufundwa kwe-EEG ephakamileyo (i-P300) xa abasebenzisi boononophala babonakala kwiinkcukacha zoononongo (ezenzekayo kwezinye izilingo).
  13. Umnqweno omncinci wesondo kunye nomntu ohambelanayo kunye ne-cue-reactivity kwiimifanekiso zoononophelo.
  14. Ukusetyenziswa koonobumba obuninzi kunxulumene nomlinganiselo ophantsi we-LPP xa ujonga ngokufutshane iifoto zesondo: ubonisa ukuhlala okanye ukungafuni.
  15. I-axis functional HPA axis kwaye iguqulwe izijikelezo zengqondo, ezenzeka kwizidakamizwa zeziyobisi (kunye ne-amygdala volume volume, ehambelana nokunyamezela kwengqondo engapheliyo).
  16. Uguquko lwe-Epigenetic kwiijethi eziphambili ekuphenduleni komntu kunye nokuxhatshazwa ngokutsha.
  17. Amanqanaba aphakamileyo we-Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) - eyenzekayo nokusetyenziswa kakubi kweziyobisi nezidakamizwa.
  18. Ilahleko kwi-cororal grey cortex; ukudibanisa okubi kakhulu phakathi kwenkampani yexeshana kunye neminye imimandla
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