Imemori

Imemori kunye nokuFunda

“Injongo yenkumbulo asikokuvumela ukuba sikhumbule okwadlulayo, kodwa kukusoloko silindela ikamva. Inkumbulo sisixhobo sokuqikelela. ”

- UAlena Berthoz

Nazi iintetho ezimbini ze-TED ezisebenzayo kumandla okufunda.

Iyokuqala nguNjingalwazi waseStanford UCarol Dweck ngamandla okukholelwa ukuba sinokuphucula. Ingongoma yakhe kukuba "umgudu nobunzima" bokuzama kuthetha ukuba i-neurons yethu yenza ukudibanisa ezintsha njengoko sifunda nokuphucula. Oku kudibene kunye namandla okuncedisa ukwakha i-gray / neurons kwi-correx ye-prefrontal.

Okwesibini ku Angela Lee Duckworth kwaye iqwalasela indima ye "grit" ekudaleni impumelelo.

Isimo sePavlovian

Ukufunda kukutshintsha kokuziphatha okubangelwa ngamava. Isinceda siziqhelanise nendalo esingqongileyo. Imeko yeklasikhi luhlobo lokufunda ngamanye amaxesha olubizwa ngokuba yi "Pavlovian conditioning". Ukuphindaphindwa kokubhangiswa kwentsimbi nokutya kubangele inja kaPavlov ukuba inyibilike sisandi sentsimbi yodwa. Eminye imizekelo yemeko yePavlovian iya kufunda ukuziva unxunguphalo:

1) Ekuboneni kwezibane zamapolisa ezikhanyayo kumbuko wakho ongasemva; okanye
2) Xa uva izandi kwiofisi yamazinyo.

Umsebenzisi onobungqina obunomdla obunomdla obunomdla obunomdla angasifaka ukukhwabanisa ngesondo, ukujonga izinto ezithile, okanye ukuchofoza kwividiyo ukuya kwividiyo.

Eli candelo li sekelwe kwizinto ezivela "Ingqondo esuka phezulu ukuya phezulu"Isikhokelo esiphezulu somthombo esikhishwe yiYunivesithi yakwaMcGill eCanada. Kunconywa kakhulu ukuba ufuna ukufunda ngaphezulu.

Ukufunda yinkqubo evumela ukuba silondoloze ulwazi olufunyenweyo, i-affective (emotion), kunye neempembelelo ezinokuchaphazela ukuziphatha kwethu. Ukufunda yinto esemqoka yengqondo, apho eli lilungu liqhubeka liguqula isakhiwo sawo ukuze sibonise kangcono amava esiwafumanayo.

Ukufunda kungalinganiswa nekhowudi, inyathelo lokuqala kwinkqubo yokukhumbula. Iziphumo zayo - inkumbulo - kukuzingisa kokubini idatha yedatha kunye nolwazi ngokubanzi.

Kodwa imemori ayithembekanga ngokupheleleyo. Xa ubona into, amaqela neurons kwiindawo ezahlukeneyo zenkqubo yengqondo yakho ulwazi malunga nokuma kwayo, umbala, iphunga, isandi, njalo njalo. Ingqondo yakho ibonisa ukudibanisa phakathi kwala maqela e-neurons, kwaye olu lwalamano luba nembono yakho yento. Emva koko, nanini na xa ufuna ukukhumbula into, kufuneka uvuselele olu lwalamano. Ukucwangcisa okufanayo ukuba i-cortex yakho yenza ntoni ngale nto, nangona kunjalo, inokutshintsha imemori yakho into.

Kwakhona, kwiinkqubo zememori yengqondo yakho, ulwazi olwahlukeneyo lukhunjulwa ngokungaphantsi kunoko kunxulunyaniswa nolwazi olukhoyo. Unxibelelwano ngakumbi phakathi kolwazi olutsha kunye nezinto osele uzazi, kokukhona uya kulifunda ngcono. Umzekelo, uya kuba nexesha elilula lokukhumbula ukuba ithambo lesinqe lixhumene nethambo lethanga, ithambo lethanga lidityaniswe nethambo ledolo, ukuba sele unolwazi olusisiseko malunga nokwakheka okanye uyayazi ingoma.

Iingcali zengqondo ziye zachonga inani lezinto ezinokuchaphazela indlela esebenza ngayo imemori ngempumelelo.

1) Isiqendu sokuqapha, ukuphaphama, ukunyamekela kunye nokugxininisa. Ukunyameko kuthiwa isisitye esichaza ulwazi kwimemori. Ukuqwalasela i-Rapt yiyo siseko se-neuroplasticity. Ukunqongophala kweengqalelo kunokunciphisa kakhulu ukusebenza kwememori. Isikhathi esiphezulu sesikrini singonakalisa imemori yokusebenza kwaye ivelise iimpawu ezilinganisa i-ADHD. Sinokuphucula umthamo wethu weememori ngokuzama ukuphinda nokudibanisa ulwazi. I-Stimuli engaqinisekiyo ekukhuthazeni ukusinda ngokomzimba, njengokwenza i-erotica, ayifuni umzamo onzima wokuba ukhangele. Kudinga umgudu wokuzama ukuwujonga phantsi kolawulo.

2) Inomdla, amandla okukhuthaza, kunye neemfuno. Kulula ukufunda xa isihloko sisithandayo. Ngaloo ndlela, ukukhuthazwa yinto ebangela inkumbulo. Abanye abantu abatsha abangenakuhlala beqhuba kakuhle kwizifundo abaphoqelelwe ukuba baye esikolweni banokubakho imemori engummangaliso malunga neemidlalo zabo ezithandayo okanye iiwebhsayithi.

3) Iimpawu ezichaphazelekayo (ngokomzwelo) nxu lumene ne zixhobo ukuba ikhunjulwe, kwaye yomntu kunye nobunzulu beemvakalelo. Imeko yethu yeemvakalelo xa isiganeko senzeka sinokuchaphazela kakhulu inkumbulo yethu. Ke, ukuba umsitho uyacaphukisa okanye uyavusa, siya kwenza inkumbulo ecace gca ngawo. Umzekelo, abantu abaninzi bayakhumbula ukuba babephi xa befunda ngokusweleka kukaPrincess Diana, okanye ngohlaselo lwangoSeptemba 11, 2001. Ukulungiswa kweziganeko ezikhuthaze imvakalelo kwimemori kubandakanya i-norepinephrine / noradrenaline, i-neurotransmitter ekhutshwa ngesixa esikhulu xa sonwabile okanye sikhathazekile. Njengoko uVoltaire ebeka, into echukumisa intliziyo ibhalwe kwimemori.

4) Indawo, ukukhanya, izandi, ukuthunga… Ngamafutshane, iyonke umongo apho ukukhunjulwa kwenzeka khona kubhalwe kunye nolwazi olukhunjulwe. Imemori yethu yememori ke ngokoqobo. Ngenxa yoko, xa sinenkathazo yokukhumbula into ethile, sinokukwazi ukuyibuyisela ngokukhumbuza apho sifunde khona okanye incwadi okanye iwebhusayithi esiyifunde kuyo. Ngaba kukho umfanekiso kwilo phepha? Ingaba ulwazi luye phezulu kwiphepha, okanye ngaphantsi? Izinto ezinjalo zibizwa ngokuba "ukukhumbula ii-index". Kwaye ngenxa yokuba sihlala sikhumbula umxholo kunye nolwazi esikufundayo, ngokukhumbula le mongo sinokuthi sihlale siqwalasela, ngokuqulunqwa kwemibutho, sikhumbule ulwazi ngokwalo.

Ukulibala kusenza silahle umlinganiselo ophezulu wenkcazelo esiyisebenzisayo imihla ngemihla kodwa ukuba ingqondo yethu iyigqibo ayiyi kuyidinga kwixesha elizayo. Ukulala kunceda kule nkqubo.

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