Iingxaki zobunonophelo abadala kuphela

likhoboka

Ukusetyenziswa okunyanzelekileyo ngaphandle kweziphumo ezibi luphawu lokulutha. Oko kuthetha ukuba nokuba umlutha ubangela ukuphulukana nomsebenzi, ubudlelwane obonakeleyo, uxinzelelo lwezezimali, ukuziva udandathekile kwaye ungalawuleki, sisaqhubeka nokuziphatha kwethu okukhobokisayo okanye iziyobisi ngaphezulu kwayo nayiphi na into ebomini bethu.

Inkcazo emfutshane ye-addiction ekhutshwe yi-American Society of Addiction Medicine yile:

Umlutha uyisifo esisisiseko, esingapheliyo somvuzo wengqondo, ukukhuthaza, inkumbulo kunye neesekethe ezinxulumene nazo. Ukungasebenzi kwalezi zijikelezo kukhokelela ekubonakalisweni kwezinto eziphilayo, ezengqondo, ezentlalo nakwimoya. Oku kubonakaliswa ngumntu ngamnye owenza umvuzo kunye / okanye uncedo ngokusetyenziswa kweziyobisi kunye nezinye iindlela zokuziphatha.

Izidakamizwa zibonakaliswa ukungakwazi ukuyeka, ukuphazamiseka ekulawuleni ukuziphatha, ukukhanga, ukunciphisa ukuqaphela iingxaki ezibalulekileyo ngokuziphatha kwabantu kunye nobudlelwane phakathi kwabantu, kunye nempendulo engathandekiyo yemvakalelo. Njengezinye izifo ezingapheliyo, izilingo zihlala ziquka ukujikeleza kwakhona nokuxolelwa. Ngaphandle kokonyango okanye ukubandakanyeka kwimisebenzi yokubuyisela, izilingo ziyaqhubeka kwaye zingabangela ukukhubazeka okanye ukufa kwangaphambili.

I-American Society of Addiction Medicine nayo ivelisa Inkcazo ende. Oku kuxoxwa ngokutshabalalisa ngokuchanekileyo kwaye kungafumaneka Apha. Ingcaciso yagqitywa ngokugqibela kwi-2011.

Umlutha sisiphumo senkqubo yotshintsho kwinkqubo yomvuzo wobuchopho. Inkqubo yomvuzo kwingqondo yethu yavela ukuze isincede siphile ngokwenza ukuba sifune imbuyekezo okanye ukonwaba, siphephe iintlungu, kwaye konke kube nomzamo omncinci okanye inkcitho yamandla. Siyabuthanda ubutsha, ngakumbi ukuba singonwaba okanye siphephe iintlungu ngaphandle komzamo omncinci. Ukutya, amanzi, ukudibanisa kunye nokwabelana ngesondo yimivuzo esisiseko esiye savela sayifuna ukuze siphile. Ujoliso kuzo lwaphuhliswa xa ezi zinto zinqabileyo zinqabile, kungoko sifumana ulonwabo xa sizifumana. Ezi ndlela zokuziphatha zisinda kuzo zonke eziqhutywa yi-neurochemical dopamine, ekomeleza neendlela ze-neural ezisinceda ukuba sifunde kwaye siphindaphinde isimilo. Xa i-dopamine isezantsi, siziva sikhuthazwa ukuba sisikhuthaze ukuba siyifune. Ngelixa umnqweno wokufuna umvuzo uvela kwi-dopamine, imvakalelo yolonwabo okanye uvuyo ekufumaneni umvuzo livela kwimpembelelo ye-neurochemical ye-opioids yendalo kwingqondo.

Namhlanje kwihlabathi lethu elinobuninzi, singqongwe ziinguqulelo 'ezingaphaya kwamandla' emivuzo yendalo enje ngokuqhubekeka, ukutya okune-junk calories kunye ne-intanethi. Ezi zibhenela kuthando lobuchopho obunomdla kunye nomnqweno wokuzonwabisa ngaphandle komzamo omncinci. Njengoko sisebenzisa ngakumbi, imingcele yethu yovakalelo inyuka kwaye sinamava okunyamezelana okanye ukungabikho kovuselelo kumanqanaba angaphambili okusetyenziswa. Oku kusenza siqwalasele iimfuno zethu zokuqina ngakumbi ukuze sizive sanelisekile, nokuba okwethutyana. Umnqweno utshintsho kwiimfuno. Ngamanye amagama, siqala 'ukufuna' isimilo ngakumbi kunokuba 'sithanda' ngokungazi, utshintsho olunxulumene nomlutha notshintsho luthatha indlela esiziphatha ngayo kwaye siphulukana nenkululeko yethu yokuzikhethela.

Olunye uqhubekeko oluphezulu, umvuzo omncinci 'wendalo' ofana neswekile esulungekileyo, utywala, inicotine, icocaine, iheroin ikwasebenzisa inkqubo yomvuzo. Baphanga iindlela zedopamine ezilungiselelwe imbuyekezo yendalo. Kuxhomekeke kumyinge, le mivuzo inokuvelisa uvakalelo olunamandla ngakumbi lokonwaba okanye ukonwaba kunokuba kunjalo ngemivuzo yendalo. Oku kugqithisela phezulu kunokuphosa inkqubo yethu yomvuzo ngaphandle kokulingana. Ingqondo iya kubambelela kuyo nayiphi na into okanye isimilo esinceda ukunciphisa uxinzelelo. Iingqondo zethu azikhange ziguquke ukuze zikwazi ukumelana nalo mthwalo ukhulayo kwinkqubo yeemvakalelo.

Iinguqu ezine zengqondo zinguqu zenzeke kwinkqubo yokulutha.

Kuqala siba 'sahlulwa' kukuziyolisa okuqhelekileyo. Siziva siphelelwe ngumdla malunga neziyolo zemihla ngemihla ezazisenza sonwabe.

Isiyobisi okanye isimilo sokulutha sisebenza notshintsho lwesibini oluphambili, 'uvakalelo'. Oku kuthetha ukuba endaweni yokonwaba kwimithombo emininzi, sigxila kakhulu kwinto yethu yomnqweno okanye nantoni na esikhumbuza ngayo. Siyakholelwa ukuba sinokuziva sanelisekile kwaye sonwabile ngayo. Sakha ukunyamezelana okt siqhele ukuya kwinqanaba eliphezulu lokukhuthaza okususa ukungahambi kakuhle kokurhoxa kuyo.

Utshintsho lwesithathu 'kukungazithembi' okanye ukuthothisa kunye nokunciphisa ukusebenza kweelobes zangaphambili ezinceda ukuthintela isimilo kunye nokusivumela ukuba sive imfesane kwabanye. I-lobes yangaphambili ziibhuleki ezibambe isimilo ekufuneka sizilawule. Yinxalenye yengqondo apho singazibeka kwezi zihlangu zabanye abantu ukuze babone umbono wabo. Isinceda ukuba sisebenzisane kwaye sidityaniswe nabanye.

Inguqu yesine yendalo yokudityaniswa kwengxaki. Oku kusishiya ukuxilisa ukuxininisa nokuphazamiseka lula, okukhokelela ekuziphatheni nasekunyanzeleni. Kuyinto eyahlukileyo yokuqina nokuqina kwengqondo.

Iziphumo zokulutha emva kokuphindaphinda nokusetyenziswa kakhulu kwento (utywala, inikotini, iqhawekazi, icocaine, iskunk njl) okanye indlela yokuziphatha (ukungcakaza, iphonografi, ukudlala, ukuthenga, ukutya ukutya okungenampilo) okubangela utshintsho kubume bengqondo nokusebenza . Ingqondo yomntu wonke yahlukile, abanye abantu bafuna ukhuthazo ngakumbi kunabanye ukuze bonwabe okanye babe likhoboka. Ukugxila okungagungqiyo kunye nokuphindaphinda into ethile okanye indlela yokuziphatha ebonakalisa ingqondo ukuba lo msebenzi ubalulekile ukuze usinde, nokuba awukho. Ingqondo iyazilawula ngokwayo ukwenza loo nto okanye indlela yokuziphatha ibe yeyona nto iphambili kwaye ibeka yonke into kubomi bomsebenzisi. Inciphisa imbonakalo yomntu kwaye iyanciphisa umgangatho wabo wobomi. Ingabonwa njengohlobo 'lokufunda ngaphezulu' xa ingqondo ibambekile kwilog yokuphendula ngokuziphatha okuphindaphindiweyo. Siphendula ngokuzenzekelayo, ngaphandle komzamo wokuqonda, kwinto esingqongileyo. Yiyo loo nto ke sidinga i-lobes engqingqwa esempilweni ukusinceda ukuba sicinge ngokuqonda malunga nezigqibo zethu kwaye siphendule ngendlela ekhuthaza umdla wethu wexesha elide kwaye hayi nje ukubongoza kwexesha elifutshane.

Kwimeko yokuba likhoboka lemifanekiso engamanyala kwi-intanethi, ukubona nje ilaptop, ithebhulethi okanye ii-smartphone zisebezela imiqondiso kumsebenzisi ukuba uyolo 'lusondele kwikona'. Ukulindelwa komvuzo okanye ukukhululeka kwiintlungu kuqhuba indlela yokuziphatha. Ukunyuka kwesiza umntu ebekade efumene "into elizothe okanye engalinganiyo incasa yesondo" kuyinto eqhelekileyo kwaye inamava ngesiqingatha sabasebenzisi. Ukulutha ngokupheleleyo kwimeko yeklinikhi akuyomfuneko ukubangela utshintsho kwengqondo oluvelisa iingxaki zengqondo nezomzimba ezinje ngengqondo yengqondo, uxinzelelo, ukuhlala wedwa ekuhlaleni, ukunyuka, uxinzelelo lwasentlalweni, ubunzima be-erectile, ukujonga kancinci ukusebenza kunye nokungabikho kwemfesane kwabanye.

Ngokuqhelekileyo ukusukela nayiphi na into eyenza ukuvelisa i-dopamine kunokunyanzeliswa ngokutshintsha oko ubuchopho bethu bubona bubalulekile okanye buyimfuneko yokuphila kwayo. Ezi ngqondo zitshintshana zichaphazela izigqibo zethu nokuziphatha kwethu. Iindaba ezimbi kukuba ukuphuhliswa komlingo omnye kunokukhokelela ekubeni umlutha kwezinye izinto okanye ukuziphatha. Oku kwenzekayo xa ubuchopho buzama ukuhlala phambili kwiimpawu zokuhoxisa ngokufuna ukuzonwabisa, okanye ukutshiza i-dopamine kunye ne-opioids, ukusuka kwenye indawo. Iintsholongwane zingoobuninzi abasengozini yokulutha.

Iindaba ezilungileyo kukuba kukuba ingqondo yiplastiki, sinokufunda ukuyeka ukuqinisa ukuziphatha ngokumazi ngokuqalisa ezintsha kunye nokushiya imikhuba endala. Oku kunciphisa indlela yokudala yengqondo kwaye kunceda ukwenza ezintsha. Akulula ukwenza kodwa ngoxhaswa, inokwenziwa. Amawaka lamadoda nabasetyhini baye bafumana ukukhwela umlutha kwaye banandipha inkululeko kunye nokuqeshiswa komsebenzi omtsha wobomi.

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