Iiseli zamagulane ezitshisa kunye kunye nentambo

Neuroplasticity

Igama elithi neuroplasticity lehla njengoko neuro "i-neuron", iiseli zesisongelo kwingqondo yethu kunye nenkqubo yesifo. iplastiki yenzelwe "ukutshintsha, ukubumbeka, ukutshintsha." I-Neuroplasticity ibhekisa kubuchule bengqondo bokutshintsha ekuphenduleni kumava. Ingqondo ikwenza oku ukomeleza unxibelelwano phakathi kweeseli zemithambo-luvo ngelixa buthathaka unxibelelwano phakathi kwabanye. Yile ndlela ingqondo egcina ngayo iinkumbulo, ifunde, ingafundi kwaye iguqule imeko eguqukayo. Imigaqo emibini ilawula ubuchopho beplastiki:

Ekuqaleni, 'iiseli zemithambo-luvo zomlilo kunye kunye' kuthetha ukuba iminyhadala emibini inokudityaniswa ngamandla ukuba yenzeka ngexesha elinye. Umzekelo, umntwana omncinci ochukumisa isitovu eshushu okokuqala wenza zombini iiseli zemithambo-luvo ezenza ukubonwa kwesitovu-phezulu kunye neeseli zemithambo-luvo eziva iintlungu ezivuthayo. Ezi ziganeko zimbini zazingadityaniswanga ziye zadityaniswa ngokusisigxina kwingqondo ngokusebenzisa amasebe eseli emithambo-luvo. Ukubona imifanekiso evuselela inkanuko yesini okokuqala kuya kubangela imemori engagungqiyo kwingqondo yomntwana kwaye iqale ukuyibumba kunye netemplate yakhe yokuvuselela inkanuko yesini.

Isibini, 'yisebenzise okanye uyilahle' lelona lifanelekileyo ngexesha leefestile ezithile zophuhliso. Kungenxa yoko le nto kulula kakhulu ukufunda izakhono ezithile okanye isimilo esithile kwiminyaka ethile. Asiboni abantu abenza umthambo beOlimpiki beqala kwiminyaka eyi-12 okanye iimvumi zekonsathi ziqala kubudala beminyaka engama-25. Ngokungafaniyo nomntwana osabhadazayo, ulutsha olubukela iphonografi ludibanisa izinto zangaphandle kunye nesekethe yakhe yangaphakathi yolonwabo lwesondo. Ukufikisa lelona xesha lokufunda malunga nokwabelana ngesondo. Iiseli zemithambo-luvo ezichaphazelekayo kwi-intanethi kunye nokucofa kwindawo yomlilo kunye nomlilo kunye nolo lonwabo. Inkqubo yakhe yemilenze yenza nje umsebenzi wayo: ukuchukumisa isitovu = iintlungu; Ukujonga indawo ezingamanyala = uyolo. Ukuyeka umsebenzi kunceda ukunciphisa ubudlelwane.

Neurons

Ingqondo yethu yinxalenye yenkqubo yemithambo-luvo eyandisiweyo. Inenkqubo ye-nervous central (CNS) kunye ne-peripheral nervous system (PNS). I-CNS inengqondo kunye nomqolo womqolo. Liziko lolawulo elifumana lonke ulwazi lweemvakalelo kuwo wonke umzimba elinokuthi emva koko ligqibe kwelokuba lenze indlela efanelekileyo yokuphendula, ukurhoxa okanye 'njengoko unjalo'. Ngokumalunga neempendulo ezithile ithumela imiqondiso nge-PNS. Ke umfanekiso o-erotic, ivumba, ukubamba, incasa okanye ukudibana kwamagama kuyakutshisa iindlela zokuvuselela inkanuko yesini ukusuka kwingqondo ukuya kwilungu lobufazi ngenkqubo ye-nervous kwiqhezu lomzuzwana.

Ingqondo ine-86 yeeseli zemithambo-luvo okanye ii-neurons. Iseli ye-neuron okanye ye-nerve inomzimba weseli oqukethe i-nucleus enezinto ze-DNA. Ngokubalulekileyo, iqulethe iiproteni eziguqula imilo njengoko zilungelelanisa negalelo lolwazi oluvela kwenye indawo.

I-Neurons ihluke kwezinye iiseli zomzimba kuba:

1. I-Neurons ineendawo ezikhethekileyo zeeseli ezibizwa ngokuba yi- dendrites kwaye axx. I-Dendrites izisa iimpawu zombane kwi-cell body kunye ne-axon zithatha ulwazi ngaphandle komzimba weseli.
2. I-Neurons ixubana nomnye ngenkqubo ye-electrochemical.
3. I-Neurons iqulethe izakhiwo ezizodwa (umzekelo, i-synapses) kunye neekhemikhali (umzekelo, i-neurotransmitters). Bona ngezantsi.

I-Neurons yimizimba yesithunywa kwi-system ye-nervous. Umsebenzi wabo ukuhambisa imiyalezo evela kwelinye inxalenye yomzimba kwenye. Ziquka malunga ne-50% yeeseli kwingqondo. Elinye malunga ne-50% yileli yelitha. Lawa angama-cell neuronal agcina i-homeostasis, ifom ye-myelin, kwaye anike inkxaso kunye nokukhusela i-neurons kwinkqubo yesantya ephakathi kunye neenkqubo zentlungu. Iiseli ze-Glial zenza isondlo ezifana nokucoca iiseli ezifile kunye nokulungisa abanye.

I-neurons yakha into esiyicinga ngayo 'njengegrey'. Xa i-axon, enokude ibe yinde okanye imfutshane, ifakwe i-white fatty substance (myelin), oku kuvumela ukuba iimpawu zigqithise ngokukhawuleza. Ukubhinqa okumhlophe okanye i-myelination, yinto edla ngokubhekisele 'njengento emhlophe'. I-Dendrites efumana ulwazi ayifumani i-myelinated. Ingqondo yobutsha idibanisa iingingqi kunye neendlela. Ikwazisa ngokukhawuleza ngokudibanisa nge-myelination.

Iimpawu zombane kunye namachiza

I-neurons yethu ithwala imiyalezo ngohlobo lweempawu zombane ezibizwa ngokuba yimpembelelo yentsholongwane okanye inokwenzeka. Ukudala umtsalane wamagulane, i-neurons yethu kufuneka ibe nemihlali ngokwaneleyo, ngenxa yengcamango okanye amava, ukuthumela umtsalane odubula ubude beeseli ukuvuya okanye ukuvimbela i-neurotransmitters ekupheleni kwe-axon. I-Stimuli enjengokukhanya, imifanekiso, isandi okanye uxinzelelo konke kuvuyisa i-neurons yethu yeengqondo. [/ X_text] [/ x_column] [/ x_row]

Ulwazi luyakwazi ukuhamba ukusuka kwenye i-neuron ukuya kwelinye i-neuron kwi-synapse okanye i-gap. I-Neurons ayinakuthintana, i synapse yincwadana encinane ehlukanisa i-neurons. Zonke i-Neurons ziphakathi naphakathi kwe-1,000 kunye ne-10,000 okanye 'synapses' nezinye i-neurons. Imemori iya kudalwa ngokudibanisa i-neurons yokuhambisa iphunga, ukubona, izandi kunye nokuthintela kunye.

Xa intshukumisa yemithambo-luvo okanye isenzo esinokubakho sihamba kunye kwaye sifikelele esiphelweni se-axon kwisiphelo sayo, ibangela iseti yeenkqubo ezahlukeneyo. Kwisiphelo kukho ii-vesicles ezincinci (iisaka) ezizaliswe ziindidi zemichiza ye-neurochemicals ebangela ukuba iintlobo zeempendulo zenzeke. Imiqondiso eyahlukeneyo isebenze iiventi eziqukethe ii-neurotransmitters ezahlukeneyo. Ezi vesicles zihamba ziye kumda wesiphelo kwaye zikhulule umxholo wazo kwi-synapse. Ihamba isuka kule neuron inqumleze kwindibano okanye isynapse kwaye iyonwabisa okanye inqanda i-neuron elandelayo.

Ukuba kukho ukuncipha nokuba ubungakanani be-neurochemical (umz. dopamine) okanye inani lezamkeli, umyalezo uba nzima ukuwudlulisa. Abantu abanesifo sikaParkinson banesifo esibi se-dopamine. Amanqanaba aphezulu e-neurochemicals okanye ii-receptors aguqulela kumyalezo owomeleleyo okanye kwimemori yendlela. Xa umsebenzisi we-porn egcoba kwimathiriyeli evuselelayo ngokweemvakalelo, ezo ndlela zisebenza kwaye zomelezwe. Amandla ombane awadlula ngokulula. Xa umntu eyeka umkhwa, kuthatha iinzame ezithile ukunqanda loo ndlela yokunganyangeki kunye nokuhamba ngokulula.

Neuromodulation Ingaba i zenyama inkqubo eyenziwe ngayo neuron usebenzisa enye okanye ezininzi iikhemikhali ukulawula abantu abahlukahlukeneyo bama-neurons. Oku kuhambelani neklasikhi ukudluliselwa kwe-synaptic, apho enye i-presynaptic neuron ichaphazela ngokuthe ngqo umlingane omnye we-postsynaptic, ukudluliselwa kolunye ulwazi. I-Neuromodulators eyimfihlo yecandelo elincinci le-neurons edibanisa kwiindawo ezinkulu ze-system ye-nervous, ezichaphazela i-neurons ezininzi. Iinkqubo ezinkulu ze-neuromodulators kwinkqubo yesantya ephakathi ziquka dopamineserotoninacetylcholinei-histamine, yaye norepinephrine / noradrenaline.

I-Neuromodulation ingacingwa nje nge-neurotransmitter engagqithwanga kwakhona nge-synaptic neuron okanye idilizwe metabolite. Abaphengululi banjalo baphela ukuchitha ixesha elininzi kwixesha cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), echaphazela (okanye "yokumodareyitha") umsebenzi wezinye ii-neurons ezininzi kwi ngengqondo. Ngenxa yesi sizathu, ezinye i-neurotransmitters nazo zibhekwa njengezi-neuromodulators, ezifana ne-serotonin kunye ne-acetylcholine. (bona i-wikipedia)

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