Ukuphuhliswa kwengqondo kwintliziyo

Ukuphuhliswa kwengqondo kwintliziyo

Jonga kule mizuzu ye-5 yokuzonwabisa ukufumana isishwankathelo esikhawulezayo samalungu obuchopho kunye nemisebenzi.

Enye yeemodeli ezaziwayo zokuqonda ukwakheka kwengqondo kukuphuhla kwemodeli yengqondo. Oku kwaphuhliswa ngu-Paul MacLean we-neuroscientist kwaye waba nefuthe elikhulu kwi-1960s. Ukutyhubela iminyaka ukusukela, nangona kunjalo, izinto ezininzi zale modeli kuye kwafuneka zihlaziyiwe ngokwezifundo zamva nje ze-neuroanatomical. Iluncedo ekuqondeni ukusebenza kwengqondo ngokubanzi. Imodeli yoqobo kaMacLean yahlula iingqondo ezintathu ezahlukeneyo ezavela ngokulandelelana ngexesha lokuvela:

Ubunzima beBrazil

Le nxalenye enkulu kakhulu yengqondo. Yakha malunga ne-400 yeminyaka edlulileyo. Iqukethe izakhiwo eziphambili ezifunyenwe kwingqondo yesilwanyana: ubuchopho buba ne-cerebellum. Itholakala ngaphakathi kwintloko kwaye ifanelana phezulu kwintambo yomthambo. Ilawula imisebenzi yethu eyintloko njengentliziyo yethu, izinga lokushisa komzimba, uxinzelelo lwegazi, ukuphefumla kunye nokulinganisela. Kwakhona kunceda ukunxibelelanisa namanye amabhinqa amabini entloko. Ubomi bobuchopho buyithembekileyo kodwa buhlala bunzima kwaye bunzima.

UbunjengeLimbic. Kwakhona kuthiwa yi-brain mammalian

Ingqondo yomlenze ilawula imilenze yomzimba. Yakha malunga ne-250 yeminyaka edlulileyo kunye nokuveliswa kwezilwanyana zokuqala. Ingakwazi ukukhumbula iinkqubo zokuziphatha ezivelise amava amnandi kwaye angavumelaniyo, ngoko ke uxanduva lwezinto ezibizwa ngokuba 'iimvakalelo' kubantu. Le nxalenye yengqondo apho siwela khona nangaphandle kwothando, kwaye sinxulumene nabanye. Ingundoqo yenkqubo yokuzonwabisa okanye inkqubo yokuvuza kubantu. Izilwanyana, kuquka nabantu, kufuneka zikhulisane zabo iintsana ngaphambi kokuba zilungele ukushiya 'isidleke' zize zenzeke. Oku akufani neentombazane ezithandwayo ezithatha nje iqanda kwaye zikhuphe.

Ingqondo yomlenze iyisihlalo seenkolelo kunye nemigwebo exabisekileyo esiyihlakulelayo, ngokungaqhelekanga, esenza impembelelo enamandla kwihambo yethu.

Amygdala

Inkqubo yesiqulatho iqulethe iingxenye ezithandathu ezibalulekileyo - i-thalamus, i-hypothalamus, i-pituitary gland, i-amygdala, i-hippocampus, i-nucleus accumbens ne-VTA. Nazi izinto abazenzayo.

The thalamus ngumqhubi we-switchboard wengqondo yethu. Naluphina ulwazi olusisiseko (ngaphandle kovumba) oluya emzimbeni wethu luya kwi-thalamus yethu yokuqala kwaye i-thalamus ithumela ulwazi kwiindawo ezifanelekileyo zeengqondo zethu ukuba ziqhutywe.

The hypothalamus ubungakanani bebhontshisi yekhofi kodwa ingaba sisakhiwo esibaluleke kakhulu engqondweni yethu. Kubandakanyeka ekulawuleni ukoma; indlala; iimvakalelo, ubushushu bomzimba; ukuvuswa kwezesondo, i-circadian (ukulala) iziqu kunye nesistim se-neon autonomic system kunye ne-endocrine (hormone). Ukongezelela, ilawula i-pituitary gland.

The pituitary lidla ngokuba libizwa ngokuba yi 'master gland', kuba livelisa amahomoni alawula amaninzi amanye ama-endocrine okanye ama-hormone. Yenza i-hormone yokukhula, i-hormone yobushushu, i-thyroid evuselela i-hormone, i-prolactin ne-Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH, ekhuthaza i-hormone yoxinzelelo, i-cortisol). Kwakhona kwenza i-hormone ye-fluid balance ebizwa ngokuba yi-hormone ye-anti-diuretic (ADH).

The amygdala ilawula ukusetyenziswa komemori, kodwa inxalenye enkulu ilawula imizwa engundoqo njengokwesaba, umsindo kunye nomona.

The hippocampus ibandakanyeka ekuqwalaseleni imemori. Le nxalenye yengqondo ibalulekile ekufundeni nasekukhunjuleni, ukuguqula imemori yesikhashana kwimemori engapheliyo, kunye nokukhumbula ubudlelwane bendawo kwihlabathi ngathi.

The Nucleus Accumbens idlala indima ephambili kwisekethe yomvuzo. Ukusebenza kwayo kusekelwe ngokukodwa kwiingcali ezimbini ezibalulekileyo ze-neurotransmitters: dopamine olukhuthaza umnqweno, kunye ne-serotonin eneempembelelo ezibandakanya ukuxhamla kunye nokuvinjelwa. Izifundo ezininzi zezilwanyana zibonise iziyobisi ngokubanzi zandisa imveliso ye-dopamine kwi-nucleus accumbens, ngelixa iyanciphisa loo nto serotonin. Kodwa i-nucleus accumbens ayisebenzisi yedwa. Igcina ubudlelwane obusondeleyo namanye amaziko achaphazelekayo kwiindlela zokuzonwabisa, kwaye ngokukodwa, kunye indawo yezentlalo, ebizwa ngokuba yiyo VTA.
Kukho phakathi kwengqondo, kwi-top of the brain stem, i-VTA ingenye yezona ndawo zincinci zengqondo. Ziyi-neurons ye-VTA eyenza i-dopamine, apho i-axon yayo ithumela khona kwi-nucleus accumbens. I-VTA iphinde iphethwe ngama-endorphins abo abafumana i-receptors bajoliswe ngamachiza e-opiate afana ne-heroin kunye ne-morphine.

I-Neocortex / i-cortex ye-cerebral. Kwakhona kuthiwa yi-Neomammalian Brain

Oku kwakusandul 'ubuchopho' bwakutshanje ukuguquka. I-cortex ye-cerebral ihlukaniswe kwiindawo ezilawula imisebenzi ethile. Iinkalo ezahlukeneyo iinkqubo iinkcukacha ezivela kwiintliziyo zethu, ezenza sikwazi ukubona, ukuziva, ukuva, kunye nokutya. Ingxenyana yangaphambili ye-cortex, i-cortex yangaphambili okanye i-forebrain, isikhungo sokucinga sengqondo; inika amandla ethu amandla okucinga, ukucwangcisa, ukusombulula iingxaki, ukuzilawula nokuzenza izigqibo.

I-neocortex yokuqala ibheka ukubaluleka kwintlanzi kwaye yafikelela ekuphepheni kwengqondo kunye nezo zibini zayo ezinkulu i-hemispheres yecerebral edlala indima ebalulekileyo. Ezi zizwe zijongene nokuphuhliswa kolwimi loluntu (c 15,000-70,000 kwiminyaka edlulileyo), ingcamango engqondweni, ukucinga kunye nokuqonda. I-neocortex iguquguqukayo kwaye inokufunda okungapheliyo okufunda. I-neocortex yintoni eyenza ukuba iinkcubeko zabantu ziphuhlise.

Inxalenye yakutshanje ye-neocortex ukuguquka yiyo i-correx ezenziwe malunga ne-500,000 kwiminyaka edlulileyo. Ngokuqhelekileyo kuthiwa yi-brain brain. Oku kusinika iindlela zokuzilawula, ukucwangcisa, ukuqonda, ingcamango engqiqo, ukuqonda kunye nolwimi. Ikwajongana nekamva, ingcinga kunye nengqiqo. Yona 'ingqondo' yeengqondo ezindala zokuqala kwaye ivumela ukuba siyivimbele okanye sibeke iibhuleki ngokuziphatha kakubi. Le nxalenye entsha yengqondo iyinxalenye esakhiwa ngexesha lokukhula.

Ubumbano obumbeneyo

Ezi nxalenye ezintathu zengqondo, i-Reptilian, iLimbic ne-Neocortex, ayisebenzi ngokuzimela. Baye baqulunqa ukudibanisa okuninzi apho bachaphazela khona. Iindlela zokungena kwi-neural ukusuka kwinkqubo ye-limbic ukuya kwi i-cortex, ziphuhliswe kakuhle.

Iimvakalelo zinamandla kakhulu kwaye zisishukumise kwizinga elincinane. Imizwa yinto eyenzeka kuthi kakhulu kunento esenza isigqibo sokwenza kwenzeke. Ininzi yenkcazo yalesi sakhono sokungalawulwa kwemvakalelo yethu ihamba ngendlela ubuchopho bomntu budibana ngayo.

Ubuchopho bethu buguquke ngendlela enokuba baxhamle ngakumbi kwiinkqubo zesimo sengqondo kwi-cortex yethu (indawo ye-control consciousness) kunezinye iindlela. Ngamanye amazwi, isandi sayo sonke isithuthi esinqabileyo esinqumlayo esikhulu esisebenza kwi-limbic system kuya kwi-cortex inokukhupha izandi ezithe gqolo kwindlela engcolileyo ehamba kuyo.

Inguqu yenguqu ekhutshwe ngumlutha ibandakanya ukunyuka kwezinto eziyimpunga (iiseliti zesigulane) kwi-correx ye-prefrontal kwinkqubo eyaziwa ngokuba yi-'yonyani '. Oku kunciphisa izibonakaliso ezingavimbelayo kwi-brain limbic ukwenza kube nzima ukuphepha ukwenza ukuziphatha okwangoku kungabonakali kwaye kuyanyanzelisa.

Ukufunda indlela yokomeleza i-correx ye-prefrontal, kwaye kunye nokuzithiba kwethu, ubuchule bokuphila obalulekileyo kunye nesiseko sempumelelo kwimpilo. Ingqondo engaqeqeshiweyo okanye ingqondo engenakulinganiswa nokulutha ingakwazi ukufezekisa kakhulu.

Neuroplasticity >>

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